We've seen that Wizards do study Astronomy and have an entire section of the Department of Mysteries dedicated to its study. However, with the exception of a (most likely false) article in the Quibbler saying that a Wizard had flown to the Moon on a Cleansweep Broom and brought back Moon Frogs, there doesn't seem to be any indication - or at least not any that I've seen - of Wizards actually trying to journey out into space.
I did think about this while watching the 2010 TV version of the H.G.Wells story "The First Men in the Moon", which showed a scientist (Dr Arthur Cavor) and a businessman (Julius Bedford) in the 1800s successfully reach the moon in a sphere that was coated in Cavorite - a substance created by Cavor that repelled gravity.
Since Wizards have mastered control over gravity or at the very least have some control over it (as there is mention of Gravity-resistant trees in Nepal along with Anti Gravity Hats that are sold as a prank), I think it would be amusing to see Wizards potentially using the same method to get into space.
However, the questions are;
Do you think Wizards will eventually journey out into space?
Do they need/want to journey out into space?
If they did, how would they do it?
(Here's the trailer for the 2010 adaptation of "The First Men in the Moon").