At least some content in this article is derived from information featured in Hogwarts Legacy, Harry Potter: Puzzles & Spells, Harry Potter: Wizards Unite, Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery.
|"Is this all real? Or has this been happening inside my head?"
The topic of this article is of a real-life subject that has been mentioned "in-universe" in a canon source. The Harry Potter Wiki is written from the perspective that all information presented in canon is true (e.g., Hogwarts really exists), and, as such, details contained in this article may differ from real world facts.
- "As every school-age wizard knows, the fact that we fly on broomsticks is probably our worst-kept secret. No Muggle illustration of a witch is complete without a broom and however ludicrous these drawings are (for none of the broomsticks depicted by Muggles would stay up in the air for a moment), they remind us that we were careless for far too many centuries to be surprised that broomsticks and magic are inextricably linked in the Muggle mind."
- —Kennilworthy Whisp, Quidditch Through the Ages[src]
Broomsticks, also known as brooms, were one of the means employed by wizards and witches to transport themselves between locations. Wizarding broomsticks, unlike non-magical brooms, were enchanted to fly, allowing for a witch or wizard to travel to their destination through the air, as well as for playing broom games such as Quidditch. Their use in Great Britain and Ireland was regulated by the Ministry of Magic's Broom Regulatory Control.
The earliest recorded use of the broomstick was in 962 in a German illustrated manuscript. Only wizards and witches appeared to use broomsticks in the wizarding world. House-elves, for example, Apparate. Broomsticks appeared to have a bit of a personality of their own, as they were able to respond to the simplest of commands, such as "Up!".
Since no spell was devised by wizards to enable them to fly (with the exception of Lord Voldemort in 1997, and Severus Snape a year later) they had to come up with another way to do so. Animagi who transformed into winged creatures enjoyed the sensation, but they were rare.
Long before the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy came into force, wizards were savvy enough to realise that Muggle neighbours would seek to exploit their abilities. Therefore, if they were to keep a method of flight in their homes, it would have to be unobtrusive and easy to hide. The broomstick was ideal — it was portable, cheap, and required no explanation. However, the first broomsticks were uncomfortable.
The first brooms
Records showed that witches and wizards in Europe were using brooms as early as AD 962. A German manuscript of this period showed three warlocks dismounting from their brooms with looks of exquisite discomfort on their faces. The first brooms bewitched were neither comfortable nor aerodynamic (they had rough twigs at the end and unvarnished handles), and in 1107 Scottish wizard Guthrie Lochrin wrote of the "splinter-filled buttocks and bulging piles" after a short ride from Montrose to Arbroath. The charms on the broom were also basic; they would move at one speed and could only go up, down, and stop. Wizard families generally constructed their own brooms, so there was a variation in speed and comfort depending on the skill of the builder. By the twelfth century, wizards began to barter services, and skilled broom-makers could trade their services for goods such as the potions of a neighbour.
Racing brooms and mass production
Until the nineteenth century, broomsticks were of varying quality, although the invention of the Cushioning Charm in 1820 by Elliot Smethwyck greatly enhanced the quality and comfort of the rides. However, they were still handmade by single wizards, and they were generally incapable of achieving high speeds and were difficult to control at high altitudes. They were also designed with styling and craftsmanship in mind, and not performance. Brooms such as the Oakshaft 79, the Moontrimmer, and the Silver Arrow all made an impact on the broom market, but were still made by single wizards and witches.
In 1926, the brothers Bob, Bill, and Barnaby Ollerton formed the Cleansweep Broom Company, and the racing broom was born. Their first model, the Cleansweep One, was produced in large quantities and was an instant hit. Three years later, in 1929, Randolph Keitch and Basil Horton formed the Comet Trading Company and released the Comet 140 with a patented Horton-Keitch Braking Charm. For several years, the Cleansweep-Comet rivalry dominated the field, until the creation of the Nimbus Racing Broom Company in 1967. The Nimbus brooms combined reliability and easy handling, and became a favourite for Quidditch teams across Europe.
Universal Brooms Ltd was a broomstick manufacturing company which was very popular in the past, but eventually shut down due to heavy losses.
Eventually, nearly every wizarding household in Britain owned at least one broomstick. Dedicated riders kept their brooms in top condition with a Broomstick Servicing Kit. Large groups of wizards and witches could travel by broomstick without being seen by Muggles, through the use of a dose of the Disillusionment Charm. An earth-bound Muggle would then only see a slight shimmer in the night sky as broomstick riders passed overhead, which could be put down to blurred vision, sleepiness, or a trick of the light.
Instead of broomsticks, wizards in Asia and the Middle East generally preferred to use flying carpets (a notable exception being Japan), which were outlawed in Britain, where they were classified as Muggle objects.
Broomsticks had various magical spells cast on them to help with riding and flying. Over time these spells went from being simple, to being more complex in nature. For example, modern broomsticks were versatile and came with a Cushioning Charm.
When Harry fell off his Nimbus 2000, it didn't fall to the ground but instead drifted away toward the Whomping Willow, suggesting that it may have had some form of enchantment on it to keep it flying without a rider.
- Cleansweep Broom Company
- Comet Trading Company
- Ellerby and Spudmore
- Flyte and Barker
- Nimbus Racing Broom Company
- Universal Brooms Ltd
- Air Wave Gold
- Australian Flyabout
- Cleansweep One
- Cleansweep Two
- Cleansweep Three
- Cleansweep Five
- Cleansweep Six
- Cleansweep Seven
- Cleansweep Eleven
- Comet 140
- Comet 180
- Comet 220
- Comet 260
- Comet 290
- Firebolt Supreme
- Nimbus 1000
- Nimbus 1001
- Nimbus 1500
- Nimbus 1700
- Nimbus 2000
- Nimbus 2001
- Oakshaft 79
- Shooting Star
- Siberian Arrow
- Silver Arrow
- Starsweeper XXI
- Thunderbolt VII
- Transylvanian Barb
- Turbo XXX
- Twigger 90
- Aingingein, played on broomsticks using a ball called a Dom and a series of flaming hoops. It originated in Ireland.
- Annual broom race held in Sweden, originating in the 10th century.
- Creaothceann, involving cauldrons and falling rocks. It was played in Scotland starting in the Middle Ages, but banned in 1762.
- Quidditch, a game of flying balls and hoops, popular in England, originated in 1050 AD.
- Quodpot, similar to Quidditch but played in the United States of America as early as the 18th century.
- Shuntbumps, a game of knockout originating in England. It survives only as a children's game.
- Stichstock, involving an inflated bladder and sharpened broomstick ends. It was played in Germany starting in at least 1105, but died out in the 14th century.
- Swivenhodge, the volleyball equivalent of broomstick sports. It originated in England.
Behind the scenes
- From the the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and onwards, the broomsticks were seen with a crossbar to hold the legs. These only appeared on the Nimbus 2000 and the Nimbus 2001 in the film versions of Philosopher's Stone and Chamber of Secrets. The crossbars on the broomsticks are not mentioned in the novels.
- In the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, it is required for one to shout, "Up!" before mounting your broom so that it can take off. While in the first video game, Harry continues to shout "Up!" to get his broom, in all other games, books, and films Quidditch players simply mount their brooms and fly away. It is possible, though, that saying "Up!" is an incantation to summon the broom, and that it is uttered nonverbally in the later books, films, and games.
- At least one broomstick appears in every film.
- Although the Death Eaters use brooms to fly in the books, they are shown to have mastered flight in the films and fly in black smoke, but in the books no witch or wizard apart from Voldemort and Snape could fly, so the Death Eaters use brooms.
- In Deathly Hallows: Part 1 most of the Order of the Phoenix members use brooms to take Harry Potter to safety. Many of the Death Eaters during the film version of the Battle of the Seven Potters also were using brooms, despite seemingly all of them demonstrating the ability in flying in smoke, as well as demonstrating being able to use magic while flying.
- Culturally, Broomsticks seem to be analogous to bicycles in the muggle world. This can be seen in the variance of builds, capabilities, and incorporation into professional sports, as well as it being normal for wizarding children to have toy broomsticks, similar to how muggle children play on tricycles and other beginner-level bikes in their youth.
- According to Rowling, brooms, like wands, are tools to channel magic and that the most gifted can dispense with them.
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (First appearance)
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film)
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (film)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (film)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child
- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (play)
- Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald - The Original Screenplay
- Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald
- Quidditch Through the Ages
- Harry Potter: A Pop-Up Book
- Harry Potter: Quidditch World Cup
- LEGO Harry Potter
- LEGO Harry Potter: Building the Magical World
- LEGO Harry Potter: Characters of the Magical World
- LEGO Dimensions
- LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4
- LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Motorbike Escape
- Harry Potter: The Character Vault
- Harry Potter: The Creature Vault (Mentioned only)
- Fantastic Beasts: Cases from the Wizarding World
- Harry Potter for Kinect
- Wonderbook: Book of Spells
- The Making of Harry Potter
- The Wizarding World of Harry Potter
- Harry Potter Trading Card Game
- Wizarding World
- Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery
- Harry Potter: Wizards Unite
- Harry Potter: Puzzles & Spells
- Hogwarts Legacy
- Harry Potter: The Wand Collection (Mentioned only)