At least some content in this article is derived from information featured in Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery. Spoilers will be present within the article.
Defence Against the Dark Arts (abbreviated as DADA) is a subject taught at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. In this class, students study and learn how to defend themselves against all aspects of the Dark Arts, including dark creatures, curses, hexes and jinxes (dark charms), and duelling.
The class is a core subject at Hogwarts. The position of Defence Against the Dark Arts professor at the school was once rumoured to be jinxed, as no teacher could hold the post for more than a year without suffering an unpleasant fate. Tom Riddle jinxed the position because Albus Dumbledore did not give him the job when he applied for it. The fact that no teacher has lasted longer than a year meant that the subject has had numerous Professors.
Tom Riddle twice applied for the Defence Against the Dark Arts position, the first time shortly after graduation from Hogwarts when he was turned down by Headmaster Armando Dippet, who claimed he was too young but invited him to re-apply a few years later. Many years later, after becoming steeped in the Dark Arts and starting to use the title "Lord Voldemort", he visited the school and applied again, this time to Dumbledore. He was refused again. According to Albus Dumbledore, after the second refusal, no Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher held the post for more than one school year. Dumbledore believed that this was due to Voldemort placing a jinx on the position, a belief that was popularly spread throughout the school.
The lessons generally have a practical approach, with many of the teachers (except Dolores Umbridge) believing that when it comes to the Dark Arts a practical approach is the best way, with theoretical assignments given as homework.
In the fifth year Ordinary Wizarding Level examinations are taken; as such, students are spent learning new topics and possibly revisiting the past four years of lessons (depending on the teacher). As part of their Defence Against the Dark Arts O.W.L., students must sit a written exam one of the questions asks to describe the five signs of a werewolf and after students must complete a practical exam of; counter-jinxes, defensive spells, the Boggart-Banishing Spell, and the Patronus Charm (for bonus points).
Also, due to the course being directly related to the Dark Arts itself, Dark Wizards who wish to teach would typically apply for this course, notably being Tom Riddle, Patricia Rakepick, Quirinus Quirrell, Bartemius Crouch Junior, Severus Snape and Amycus Carrow.
Vincent Crabbe and Gregory Goyle are two known students who failed their O.W.L.s in Defence Against the Dark Arts, for which the following year's respective teacher, Snape, gave them both detentions.
The Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher is also responsible for dealing with any Dark Arts related activities that threaten the school and its residents, as Harry and Ron expected Lockhart to enter the Chamber of Secrets and protested against his excuse of leaving under an unavoidable urgent call in 1993, while Snape was assigned to staunch the deadly curse that afflicted Katie Bell in 1996.
Location and time
Defence Against the Dark Arts classes take place on the first-floor, Class 104 in the North Tower and Classroom 3C on the third-floor. In Classroom 3C, an iron chandelier hung from the ceiling, as well as a dragon's skeleton. On one end of the classroom stands a projector that is activated by magic. Several desks and tables can be found in the classroom as well as some sets of large windows.
- "You have had five teachers in this subject so far, I believe. Naturally, these teachers will all have had their own methods and priorities. Given this confusion I am surprised so many of you scraped an O.W.L. in this subject. I shall be even more surprised if all of you manage to keep up with N.E.W.T. work, which will be much more advanced."
- —Professor Snape on the curriculum's instability[src]
During the 1988–1989 school year, the renowned Curse-Breaker Patricia Rakepick was appointed as the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher for that academic year. She proved herself to be a highly effective teacher of both defensive and offensive magic, having taught her students a wide variety of fascinating and useful topics during her lessons, to compensate her students for having learnt almost nothing in previous years. She even gave her select students private lessons in the subject, teaching them how to duel, in preparation for locating the Cursed Vaults throughout the Castle.
In the 1991–1992 school year, Quirinus Quirrell taught mainly theoretical knowledge, which, four years later, the Ministry deemed he was the only teacher before Dolores Umbridge to be of acceptable standards. However, the Ministry at the time was corrupt and paranoid, thus their evaluation of Quirrell's effectiveness was inaccurate. In fact, while he was a studious intellectual, his practical aspect was severely hampered by his timid and stuttering nature, leading him unable to teach properly, which caused many students consider his classes to be a joke, and failed to take him seriously.
In the 1992–1993 school year, Gilderoy Lockhart, fraudulent and incompetent, taught nothing to the classes of his respective tenure, aside from nonsensical and unrelated materials, considering that he was hired solely by Albus Dumbledore for the purpose of ousting him as a fraud to the world. His lectures were simply storytelling and theatrical reenactments from his books, since his first practical lesson ended in a disaster that he failed to contain (involving live "freshly caught" Cornish Pixies), and his idea of homework was for the class to compose a poem of one of his alleged achievements with the offer of a signed copy of his autobiography to the best composer. Lockhart simply using the course to promote his uninformative publications, Ron Weasley claimed that the only thing he learned from it was "not to set pixies loose", and expressed his desire to drop out of the course mainly of Lockhart's incompetence.
In the 1993–1994 school year, Professor Lupin was among the most effective teachers to have taught, as many students under his tutelage agreed upon. He taught practical aspects during the lectures, even bringing in several dark creatures in captivity as visual aids, and assigned theoretical aspects for homework. Hermione Granger claimed he was the only teacher among their five (at the time) who knew what he was doing.
In the 1994–1995 school year, Bartemius Crouch Junior, then disguised as Alastor Moody using Polyjuice Potion, believed firmly in a practical approach. As such, he taught the fourth year class on the Unforgivable Curses that were normally reserved for the sixth year, believing they need to see it sooner. He even performed the Imperius Curse on all the students as a means to teach them how to resist it. Although the students found him to be one of the most effective instructors (despite his true identity later being revealed to be a criminal), the Ministry found the lessons to be very controversial, and expressed their strong disapproval.
During the 1995-1996 school year, the Minister for Magic, Cornelius Fudge, had deluded himself with the bizarre conspiracy theory that Headmaster Albus Dumbledore was using the students to create a private army of young witches and wizards to overthrow the Ministry. As such, he implanted Dolores Umbridge to become the teacher of the Defence Against the Dark Arts classes, which he believed to be the main source of training (e.g. defensive spells) for Dumbledore's would-be soldiers.
Umbridge supplied a syllabus based entirely on the theory of conflict rather facing them, all of which was simply reading out of the textbook, believing that this would be sufficient in passing the examinations. Furthermore, she herself did not teach the students, as she had them read the textbooks quietly in class and refused to answer their questions any more than to silence them. This misguided belief deprived the students on any useful lessons as even the theories are inaccurate, thus leading to the formation on Dumbledore's Army, which taught more practical defence that students from all grades found more useful. Umbridge would later claim that the spells Harry taught were deemed by the Ministry inappropriate for students at their ages.
In the 1996–1997 school year, Professor Snape taught his classes to respect the Dark Arts as a dangerous and ever-evolving opponent, and that their defences must be as versatile as the foul arts they seek to undo. He imposed a darker atmosphere in the classroom by dimmer lighting and macabre portraits in order to allow the students to have a firmer understanding of the sufferings the Dark Arts can bring. Hermione concluded that Snape's ideals were very much the same as what Harry Potter expressed during the Dumbledore's Army recruitment meeting: not simply memorising a bunch of spells, but to understand and react appropriately to the situation at hand. As with Lupin and Crouch, Snape taught practically during the lectures, and assigned theories for homework.
In the 1997-1998 school year, the class was changed to Dark Arts during Voldemort's takeover of the school. It was taught by the Death Eater Amycus Carrow, who taught students how to perform the Unforgivable Curses, with a particular emphasis with ordering students to practise the Cruciatus Curse on disobedient students, along with the summoning of Fiendfyre.
- "The class everyone had really been looking forward to was Defence Against the Dark Arts, but Quirrell's lessons turned out to be a bit of a joke."
- —DADA lessons with Quirrell as the professor[src]
1988–1989 school year
Patricia Rakepick was the Professor in this subject for the 1988–1989 school year, in which she taught her fifth year students a wide multitude of highly interesting and useful topics, carefully balancing both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills.
1995–1996 school year
- "Well now, your teaching in this subject has been rather disrupted and fragmented, hasn’t it? The constant changing of teachers, many of whom do not seem to have followed any Ministry-approved curriculum, has unfortunately resulted in your being far below the standard we would expect to see in your O.W.L. year. You will be pleased to know, however, that these problems are now to be rectified. We will be following a carefully structured, theory-centred, Ministry-approved course of defensive magic this year."
- —Dolores Umbridge's excuse of depriving students of practical defence[src]
Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry
- "There is a new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, and that position is now as safe as the other teaching posts at Hogwarts, since Voldemort's death broke the jinx that kept a Defence Against the Dark Arts professor from remaining for more than a year."
- —J. K. Rowling stated the jinx on the DADA post has been lifted[src]
- Galatea Merrythought (?-1945)
- Unidentified teacher (1984-1985)
- Unidentified teacher (1985-1986)
- Unidentified teacher (1986-1987)
- Unidentified teacher (1987-1988)
- Unidentified teacher (1989-1990)
- Unidentified teacher (1998-?)
During the time between the beginning of Voldemort's jinx and when it was eventually broken, there was at least one professor per year. Therefore, between c. 1965 and 1990 (the year before Harry began studying at Hogwarts) there could be around twenty-five different professors in the position.
Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry
- All Aurors since it is a compulsory N.E.W.T.-level qualification; therefore O.W.L. must have been achieved before that.
Behind the scenes
- When J. K. Rowling was asked why Dumbledore would not give Severus Snape the Defence Against the Dark Arts job, Rowling responded that Dumbledore believed that teaching Defence Against the Dark Arts would bring out Snape's worst side, though Dumbledore finally relented in Harry's sixth year. Snape admitted to Bellatrix Lestrange that reason during their conversation in Spinner's End.
- Rowling has also revealed that after Amycus Carrow was the Dark Arts teacher, a permanent teacher took the post because Voldemort's curse over the job was lifted.
- Whilst it is known that Dumbledore did not wish Professor Snape to teach DADA for fear of relapsing into his Death Eater ways, it is also possible that (since the subject had been jinxed) he was also thinking of Snape's physical well-being (not least of all because of how much of importance he could have been, and was, in the long run). Despite Dumbledore's fear, however, Snape did not truly return to his old ways when granted the position he sought for, though he did teach the lessons with a sense of passion for the Dark Arts.
- Each Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher attacked (or attempted to attack) Harry.
- Quirrell tried to strangle Harry and jinxed his broom during a Quidditch game.
- Lockhart attempted to erase his memories
- Lupin went after him as a werewolf (although he alone out of all the others would never have attacked Harry if he had been in his human form)
- Barty Crouch Jr (disguised as Moody) tried to kill him.
- Umbridge physically assaulted him and threatened him with the Cruciatus Curse (and had previously sent Dementors to attack him, though this was before she taught the subject).
- Snape attacked Harry in retaliation for Harry trying to curse him during the Battle of the Astronomy Tower.
- Ironically, Amycus Carrow, who taught Dark Arts instead of Defence Against the Dark Arts, was attacked by Harry Potter after Amycus had insulted Minerva McGonagall.
- Dolores Umbridge was the only female Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the series besides Galatea Merrythought; Galatea was not seen throughout the series, only mentioned.
- The six professors of this subject who taught Harry each had a dark secret that he did not learn until near the end of their respective school years:
- Quirrell was serving Voldemort and was possessed by him.
- Lockhart was a cowardly fraud who covertly stole the achievements of others.
- Lupin was a werewolf.
- Moody was actually Barty Crouch Jr, an escaped Death Eater.
- Umbridge was the one who sent the Dementors that attacked Harry and Dudley.
- Snape was the one who had reported the prophecy to Voldemort and was the Half-Blood Prince.
- During his tenure as Potions Master, Severus Snape only accepted students who achieved an 'Outstanding' on their OWLs into his NEWT-level Potions classes. However, when Snape became the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the 1996–1997 school year, students who achieved 'Exceeds Expectations' were still allowed to take the NEWT-level DADA classes.
- The only book to have twice been assigned for this subject is The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection.
- Most of the Defence Against the Dark Arts teachers in Harry's six years at Hogwarts followed a similar pattern: each (with the exception of Quirrell and Snape).
- They were an entirely new teacher; each was chosen out of necessity, due to the loss of the previous instructor and the absence of other applicants
- each meets Harry before he arrives at Hogwarts in the respective year (with the exception of Mad-Eye Moody, who was only mentioned in passing, although Harry had unknowingly encountered Barty Crouch Jr at the Quidditch World Cup)
- and each physically (or magically) attacks Harry during school term, either intentionally or accidentally, as in the case of Remus Lupin.
- In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, when discussing who their new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher would be, Harry said that the teachers didn't have much luck: "One sacked, one dead, one lost his memory, and one was locked in a trunk for nine months," referring to Lupin, Quirrell, Lockhart, and Moody, respectively; this isn't true, however, because Lupin resigned rather than was fired. Also, Crouch Jr, the de facto teacher for Harry's fourth year, suffered the Dementor's Kiss.
- Quirinus Quirrell is the only Defence Against The Dark Arts Teacher known to have died during the year he gave the subject.
- According to Pottermore, from the best to worst Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher during the seven years of Harry's education:
- Remus Lupin, for his fair, popular and effective teaching methods.
- Severus Snape, for his effective, qualified yet strict methods.
- Gilderoy Lockhart, for his fraudulence, teaching about himself more than about defence.
- Barty Crouch, for his allegiance with Voldemort, despite his actual teaching effectiveness.
- Amycus Carrow, for turning the class into just Dark Arts and his brutal discipline methods.
- Dolores Umbridge, for depriving the class of any practicality and her scarring disciplinary methods.
- Quirinus Quirrell, for having Voldemort at the back of his head.
- In Hogwarts Mystery, if players take Jacob's sibling to the O.W.L. through an optional side quest, they will definitely gain at least an A, even if they fail to answer every question and perform any defensive spells.
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (First appearance)
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film)
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (film)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (film)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (Appears in alternate reality)
- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (play) (Appears in alternate reality)
- Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald - The Original Screenplay
- Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald
- LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4
- LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7
- Wizarding World
- Harry Potter: The Character Vault (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter: The Creature Vault
- Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery
- The Archive of Magic: The Film Wizardry of Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald
- Harry Potter: The Wand Collection (Mentioned only)
Notes and references
- ↑ Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald - The Original Screenplay
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry" at Wizarding World
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 5 (Diagon Alley)
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 9 (The Half-Blood Prince)
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 7 (The Boggart in the Wardrobe)
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 8 (Flight of the Fat Lady)
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 10 (The Marauder's Map)
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 14 (The Unforgivable Curses)
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 20 (Lord Voldemort's Request)
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Finished ‘Potter’? Rowling tells what happens next at Today (26 Jul 2007)
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 12 (Professor Umbridge)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 31 (O.W.L.s)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 15 (The Unbreakable Vow)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 16 (The Chamber of Secrets)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 12 (Silver and Opals)
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5 Defence Against the Dark Arts lessons in general.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 8 (The Potions Master)
- ↑ Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Professor Quirrell" at Wizarding World
- ↑ Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Gilderoy Lockhart" at Wizarding World
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 6 (Gilderoy Lockhart)
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 10 (The Rogue Bludger)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 14 (Cornelius Fudge)
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 15 (Beauxbatons and Durmstrang)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 5 (The Order of the Phoenix)
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 18 (Dumbledore's Army)
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 27 (The Centaur and the Sneak)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 29 (The Lost Diadem)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 31 (The Battle of Hogwarts)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 13 (Nicolas Flamel)
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 30.6 30.7 30.8 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (video game)
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 31.7 The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 9 (The Midnight Duel)
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 These were all dark creatures Gilderoy Lockhart covered in his official textbooks.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 34.7 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (video game)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 11 (The Duelling Club)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 16 (Professor Trelawney's Prediction)
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 9 (Grim Defeat)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 14 (Snape's Grudge)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (video game)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 28 (The Madness of Mr Crouch)
- ↑ LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 1 (Year Five Begins) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Ghoul"
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 22 (Agent of Chaos) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Vipera Evanesca"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 2 (Grave Danger) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Hex-Deflection"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 3 (Detention Before Extension) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Impedimenta"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 8 (Trial by Fire) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Mimblewimble"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 13 (Rats and Dogs) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Trip Jinx"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 15 (Secrets and Lies) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Deprimo"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 17 (Broken Bonds) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Fumos"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 19 (The Unforgivable Curses) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Lacarnum Inflamari"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 24 (Dark Pranks) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Reductor Curse"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 29 (Final Preparations) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Everte Statum"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 26 (Chaos Ensues) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Densaugeo"
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 28 (About Merula) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Homenum Revelio"
- ↑ 57.0 57.1 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film)
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 58.4 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 59.2 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (video game)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 25 (The Beetle at Bay)
- ↑ 61.0 61.1 61.2 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 21 (The Unknowable Room)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 18 (Moony, Wormtail, Padfoot and Prongs) Remus Lupin - "“I was a very small boy when I received the bite...But then Dumbledore became Headmaster, and he was sympathetic." Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Remus Lupin" at Wizarding World - Lupin was attacked shortly before his fifth birthday (March 1965) and Headmaster Dumbledore comes to visit shortly before his eleventh birthday (March 1971) so Dumbledore succeeded Dippet as headmaster during this time.
- ↑ Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery (see this image)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 29 (Careers Advice)
- ↑ http://web.archive.org/web/20040619155715/http://www.quick-quote-quill.org/articles/2003/0626-alberthall-fry.htm
- ↑ Interview from Quick Quote Quill
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 2 (Spinner's End)
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