"Defence Against the Dark Arts Classroom. No cursing allowed."
— Notice outside the classroom[src]

Defence Against the Dark Arts (abbreviated as DADA) was a subject taught at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.[13] In this class, students studied and learnt how to defend themselves against all aspects of the Dark Arts, including dark creatures,[20][23][24] curses, hexes and jinxes (dark charms),[21] and duelling.[19]

The class was a core subject at Hogwarts.[25] The position of Defence Against the Dark Arts professor at the school was once rumoured to be jinxed, as no teacher could hold the post for more than a year without suffering an unpleasant fate. Tom Riddle jinxed the position because Albus Dumbledore did not give him the job when he applied for it.[2] The fact that no teacher has lasted longer than a year meant that the subject had numerous Professors over the years.[19]

Ilvermorny began teaching the subject in the 17th century.[13] Harry Potter would occasionally deliver Defence Against the Dark Arts lectures at Hogwarts in his adulthood.[26]

Class information

"The Dark Arts, are many, varied, ever-changing, and eternal. Fighting them is like fighting a many-headed monster, which, each time a neck is severed, sprouts a head even fiercer and cleverer than before. You are fighting that which is unfixed, mutating, indestructible. Your defences must therefore be as flexible and inventive as the arts you seek to undo."
— Professor Snape discussing Defence Against the Dark Arts during a sixth year lesson in 1996[src]

Defence Against the Dark Arts was a required subject from first year to fifth year.[25][17] The curriculum of the class varied greatly depending on what the professor at the time deemed appropriate. Due to the jinx on the teaching post that was present before Lord Voldemort died, many teachers had been appointed to this post.[2]

Tom Riddle twice applied for the Defence Against the Dark Arts position, the first time shortly after graduation from Hogwarts when he was turned down by Headmaster Armando Dippet, who claimed he was too young but invited him to re-apply a few years later. Many years later, after becoming steeped in the Dark Arts and starting to use the title "Lord Voldemort", he visited the school and applied again, this time to Dumbledore. He was refused again. According to Albus Dumbledore, after the second refusal, no Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher held the post for more than one school year. Dumbledore believed that this was due to Voldemort placing a jinx on the position, a belief that was popularly spread throughout the school.[2]

1994 Defence Against the Dark Arts lesson on the Unforgivable Curses

The lessons generally had a practical approach, with the cases of competent teachers believing that when it came to the Dark Arts a practical approach was the best way,[20][21][19] with theoretical assignments given as homework.[27] Inadequate teachers, such as Quirinus Quirrell and Dolores Umbridge, who were focused on theories alone, hampered the learning of defences as they would not be providing students any practical experiences.[17][28]

In the fifth year Ordinary Wizarding Level examinations were taken; as such, students spent their time learning new topics and possibly revisiting the past four years of lessons (depending on the teacher). As part of their Defence Against the Dark Arts O.W.L., students had to sit a written exam one of the questions asks to describe the five signs of a werewolf[29] and after students must complete a practical exam of; counter-jinxes, defensive spells, the Boggart-Banishing Spell, and the Patronus Charm (for bonus points).[30]

To advance to the N.E.W.T. class, a student had to first achieve a high O.W.L. score of either "Outstanding" or "Exceeds Expectations"; most teachers set the bar at "Exceeds Expectations".[31]

Also, due to the course being directly related to the Dark Arts itself, Dark Wizards who wished to teach would typically apply for this course, notably being Tom Riddle,[2] Patricia Rakepick,[32] Quirinus Quirrell,[33] Bartemius Crouch Junior,[7] Dolores Umbridge,[34] Severus Snape[9] and Amycus Carrow.[35]

Vincent Crabbe and Gregory Goyle were two known students who failed their O.W.L.s in Defence Against the Dark Arts, for which the following year's respective teacher, Snape, gave them both detentions.[36]

The Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher was also responsible for dealing with any Dark Arts related activities that threaten the school and its residents, as Harry and Ron expected Lockhart to enter the Chamber of Secrets and protested against his excuse of leaving under an unavoidable urgent call in 1993,[37] while Snape was assigned to staunch the deadly curse that afflicted Katie Bell in 1996.[38]

Location and time

Classrooms

Defence Against the Dark Arts classes took place on the first-floor, Class 104 in the North Tower and Classroom 3C on the third-floor. In Classroom 3C, an iron chandelier hung from the ceiling, as well as a dragon's skeleton.[14] On one end of the classroom stood a projector that was activated by magic. Several desks and tables could be found in the classroom as well as some sets of large windows.[16]

Lesson times

Year Day Period
First Monday second
Second fourth
Thursday first
Wednesday fourth
Third Monday fifth
Thursday fourth
Friday third
Fourth Thursday fourth/fifth
Fifth Monday fifth/sixth
Friday sixth
Sixth Monday morning
Seventh unknown unknown

Curriculum

"You have had five teachers in this subject so far, I believe. Naturally, these teachers will all have had their own methods and priorities. Given this confusion I am surprised so many of you scraped an O.W.L. in this subject. I shall be even more surprised if all of you manage to keep up with N.E.W.T. work, which will be much more advanced."
— Professor Snape on the curriculum's instability[src]

Due to the constant changing of teachers until the jinx created by Voldemort was broken, the curriculum of Defence Against the Dark Arts varied from year to year.[19][2] Each teacher had their own priorities and way of teaching, and their own respective efficiency proportional to his or her beliefs and methods,[19] such as Quirinus Quirrell and Dolores Umbridge believing that theories are enough (which were, in fact, more hindering),[28] while the more effective Remus Lupin,[20] Bartemius Crouch Junior[21] (then disguised as Alastor Moody with Polyjuice Potion)[7] and Severus Snape[19] had a more balanced belief in theory and practical defence.

Sixth years are supposed to be given demonstrations on what illegal curses look like; it was only in the 1994–1995 school year that this was changed to the fourth year.[21]

Earlier teachers from the 1985–1986 school year for example, were considered highly incompetent and ineffective by most students, and as such, very rarely showed up to teach.[39][40][41][42]

Patricia Rakepick teaching Defence Against the Dark Arts to fifth years

During the 1988–1989 school year, the renowned Curse-Breaker Patricia Rakepick was appointed as the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher for that academic year.[3] She proved herself to be a highly effective teacher of both defensive and offensive magic, having taught her students a wide variety of fascinating and useful topics during her lessons, to compensate her students for having learnt almost nothing in previous years. She even gave her select students private lessons in the subject, teaching them how to duel, in preparation for locating the Cursed Vaults throughout the Castle.[3][43][44][45][46][47] [48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55]

Bill Weasley teaching a group of sixth years Defence Against the Dark Arts in the evening

During the 1989–1990 school year, Bill Weasley was given permission by Albus Dumbledore to teach extra-curricular evening classes in this subject to students after graduating the school, due to the ineffectiveness of the teaching that year.[56] He continued teaching these lessons in the 1990–1991 school year as well.[57]

Quirrell teaching Defence Against the Dark Arts

In the 1991–1992 school year, Quirinus Quirrell taught mainly theoretical knowledge,[58] which, four years later, the Ministry deemed he was the only teacher before Dolores Umbridge to be of acceptable standards. However, the Ministry at the time was corrupt and paranoid, thus their evaluation of Quirrell's effectiveness was inaccurate.[28] In fact, while he was a studious intellectual, his practical aspect was severely hampered by his timid and stuttering nature, leading him unable to teach properly, which caused many students consider his classes to be a joke, and failed to take him seriously.[25][58]

Lockhart "teaching" Defence Against the Dark Arts

In the 1992–1993 school year, Gilderoy Lockhart, fraudulent and incompetent, taught nothing to the classes of his respective tenure, aside from nonsensical and unrelated materials, considering that he was hired solely by Albus Dumbledore for the purpose of ousting him as a fraud to the world.[59] His lectures were simply storytelling and theatrical re-enactments from his books, since his first practical lesson ended in a disaster that he failed to contain (involving live "freshly caught" Cornish Pixies),[22] and his idea of homework was for the class to compose a poem of one of his alleged achievements with the offer of a signed copy of his autobiography to the best composer.[60] Lockhart simply using the course to promote his uninformative publications, Ron Weasley claimed that the only thing he learned from it was "not to set pixies loose", and expressed his desire to drop out of the course mainly of Lockhart's incompetence.[61] In late 1992, Lockhart also established a very shortly lived and unsuccessful Duelling Club with the help of Severus Snape, in an attempt to teach students how to defend themselves; the club only had one meeting which resulted in complete chaos.[62]

Lupin teaching Defence Against the Dark Arts

In the 1993–1994 school year, Professor Lupin was among the most effective teachers to have taught, as many students under his tutelage agreed upon. He taught practical aspects during the lectures, even bringing in several dark creatures in captivity as visual aids, and assigned theoretical aspects for homework. He was also charismatic, earning the respect of his students, and therefore, making them want to learn from him.[20][23][24] Lupin also gave his favourite student Harry Potter additional lessons in how to perform the Patronus Charm, so he could learn to combat Dementors.[63] Hermione Granger claimed he was the only teacher among their five (at the time) who knew what he was doing.

"Moody" demonstrating the Killing Curse on a spider during a fourth year lesson

In the 1994–1995 school year, Bartemius Crouch Junior, then disguised as Alastor Moody using Polyjuice Potion,[7] believed firmly in a practical approach. As such, he taught the fourth year class on the Unforgivable Curses that were normally reserved for the sixth year, believing they need to see it sooner.[21] He even performed the Imperius Curse on all the students as a means to teach them how to resist it.[64] Although the students found him to be one of the most effective instructors (despite his true identity later being revealed to be a criminal), the Ministry found the lessons to be very controversial, and expressed their strong disapproval.[17]

Umbridge "teaching" Defence Against the Dark Arts

During the 1995–1996 school year, the Minister for Magic, Cornelius Fudge, had deluded himself with the bizarre conspiracy theory that Headmaster Albus Dumbledore was using the students to create a private army of young witches and wizards to overthrow the Ministry.[65] As such, he implanted Dolores Umbridge to become the teacher of the Defence Against the Dark Arts classes, which he believed to be the main source of training (e.g. defensive spells) for Dumbledore's would-be soldiers.[17]

Umbridge supplied a syllabus based entirely on the theory of conflict rather facing them, all of which was simply reading out of the textbook, believing that this would be sufficient in passing the examinations. Furthermore, she herself did not teach the students, as she had them read the textbooks quietly in class and refused to answer their questions any more than to silence them.[17][28] This misguided belief deprived the students on any useful lessons as even the theories are inaccurate, thus leading to the formation on Dumbledore's Army, which taught more practical defence that students from all grades found more useful.[66] Umbridge would later claim that the spells Harry taught were deemed by the Ministry inappropriate for students at their ages.[67]

In the 1996–1997 school year, Professor Snape taught his classes to respect the Dark Arts as a dangerous and ever-evolving opponent, and that their defences must be as versatile as the foul arts they seek to undo. He imposed a darker atmosphere in the classroom by dimmer lighting and macabre portraits in order to allow the students to have a firmer understanding of the sufferings the Dark Arts can bring. Hermione concluded that Snape's ideals were very much the same as what Harry Potter expressed during the Dumbledore's Army recruitment meeting: not simply memorising a bunch of spells, but to understand and react appropriately to the situation at hand.[19] As with Lupin and Crouch, Snape taught practically during the lectures, and assigned theories for homework.

As with every other course that requires practical spells, sixth years are taught Nonverbal spell usage,[19] and are expected to use them in class from then on.[68]

In the 1997–1998 school year, the class was changed to Dark Arts during Voldemort's takeover of the school. It was taught by the Death Eater Amycus Carrow, who taught students how to perform the Unforgivable Curses, with a particular emphasis with ordering students to practise the Cruciatus Curse on disobedient students,[35] along with the summoning of Fiendfyre.[69]

First year

"The class everyone had really been looking forward to was Defence Against the Dark Arts, but Quirrell's lessons turned out to be a bit of a joke. His classroom smelled strongly of garlic, which everyone said was to ward off a vampire he’d met in Romania and was afraid would be coming back to get him one of these days."
— DADA lessons with Quirrell as the professor[src]

Dark creatures

Spells

Second year

"Now — be warned! It is my job to arm you against the foulest creatures known to wizardkind! You may find yourselves facing your worst fears in this room. Know only that no harm can befall you whilst I am here. All I ask is that you remain calm. I must ask you not to scream. It might provoke them."
— Lockhart introducing Cornish Pixies[src]

Dark creatures

Spells

Third year

"Professor Lupin had complied the most unusual exam any of them had ever taken; a sort of obstacle course outside in the sun, where they had to wade across a deep paddling pool containing a Grindylow, cross a series of potholes full of Red Caps, squish their way across a patch of marsh while ignoring misleading directions from a Hinkypunk, then climb into an old trunk and battle with a new Boggart."
— The third year Defence Against the Dark Arts exam in 1994[src]

Students during the 1993–1994 school year, under the significantly high quality of teaching under Remus Lupin, learnt about numerous dark creatures and how to handle them appropriately.[20][23][24][77][78]

Dark creatures

Spells

Fourth year

"So — straight into it. Curses. They come in many strengths and forms. Now, according to the Ministry of Magic, I’m supposed to teach you countercurses and leave it at that. I’m not supposed to show you what illegal Dark curses look like until you’re in the sixth year. You’re not supposed to be old enough to deal with it till then. But Professor Dumbledore’s got a higher opinion of your nerves, he reckons you can cope, and I say, the sooner you know what you’re up against, the better."
Barty Crouch Jnr (disguised as Alastor Moody) on his approach of the subject[src]

Students witnessed the three Unforgivable Curses used on spiders.[21] They were also given lessons on resisting the Imperius Curse, in which Harry Potter was the only one successful in his class.[64] These demonstrations were during the 1994-1995 school year only and the Unforgivable Curses are usually covered in the sixth year N.E.W.T. class.[21]

Dark creatures

Spells

Fifth year

1988–1989 school year

"I am not only going to show you how to defend yourselves against the Dark Arts, but how to attack the Dark Arts. You will receive the finest instruction from someone who has actually faced the worst that the Dark Arts has to offer. They say this position is cursed, but breaking curses is what I do best."
— Patricia Rakepick's approach to teaching the subject[src]

Patricia Rakepick was the Professor in this subject for the 1988–1989 school year, in which she taught her fifth year students a wide multitude of highly interesting and useful topics, carefully balancing both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills.

Dark creatures
Spells

1995–1996 school year

"Well now, your teaching in this subject has been rather disrupted and fragmented, hasn’t it? The constant changing of teachers, many of whom do not seem to have followed any Ministry-approved curriculum, has unfortunately resulted in your being far below the standard we would expect to see in your O.W.L. year. You will be pleased to know, however, that these problems are now to be rectified. We will be following a carefully structured, theory-centred, Ministry-approved course of defensive magic this year."
Dolores Umbridge's excuse for depriving students of practical defence[src]
Dark creatures
Spells

Sixth year

"You will now divide... into pairs. One partner will attempt to jinx the other without speaking. The other will attempt to repel the jinx in equal silence. Carry on."
— A N.E.W.T. lesson on nonverbal spells[src]

Official curriculum

Dark creatures
Spells

Bill Weasley's extracurricular classes

"I've decided to visit Hogwarts from time to time to teach you new defensive spells. This is all informal, of course. I'm not replacing your professor, just tutoring."
— Bill Weasley explaining his tutoring lessons to sixth years[src]

During the 1989–1990 school year, Bill Weasley was given permission by Albus Dumbledore to give evening classes in this subject after graduating Hogwarts, due to the ineffectiveness of the teaching that school year.[56]

Dark creatures
Spells

Seventh year

Bill Weasley's extracurricular classes

Dark creatures

Known professors

Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry

"There is a new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, and that position is now as safe as the other teaching posts at Hogwarts, since Voldemort's death broke the jinx that kept a Defence Against the Dark Arts professor from remaining for more than a year."
J. K. Rowling stated the jinx on the DADA post has been lifted[src]

During the time between the beginning of Voldemort's jinx and when it was eventually broken, there was at least one professor per year. Therefore, between c. 1965 and 1990 (the year before Harry began studying at Hogwarts) there could be around twenty-five different professors in the position.[95]

Severus Snape served as a substitute teacher during the 1993–1994 school year, when Remus Lupin was feeling ill.[79]

Harry Potter occasionally gave lectures on the subject.[26]

Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry

Required textbooks

Grades

Passing Grades

Fail Grades

Known O.W.L.s

  • All Aurors since it is a compulsory N.E.W.T.-level qualification; therefore O.W.L. must have been achieved before that.[31]

Behind the scenes

  • When J. K. Rowling was asked why Dumbledore would not give Severus Snape the Defence Against the Dark Arts job, Rowling responded that Dumbledore believed that teaching Defence Against the Dark Arts would bring out Snape's worst side,[101] though Dumbledore finally relented in Harry's sixth year.[102] Snape admitted to Bellatrix Lestrange that reason during their conversation in Spinner's End.[103]
  • Rowling has also revealed that after Amycus Carrow was the Dark Arts teacher, a permanent teacher took the post because Voldemort's jinx over the job was lifted.
  • Whilst it is known that Dumbledore did not wish Professor Snape to teach DADA for fear of relapsing into his Death Eater ways, it is also possible that (since the subject had been jinxed) he was also thinking of Snape's physical well-being (not least of all because of how much of importance he could have been, and was, in the long run). Despite Dumbledore's fear, however, Snape did not truly return to his old ways when granted the position he sought for, though he did teach the lessons with a sense of passion for the Dark Arts.
  • Each Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher attacked (or attempted to attack) Harry.
    • Quirrell tried to strangle Harry and jinxed his broom during a Quidditch game.
    • Lockhart attempted to erase his memories
    • Lupin went after him as a werewolf (although he alone out of all the others would never have attacked Harry if he had been in his human form)
    • Barty Crouch Jnr (disguised as Moody) tried to kill him.
    • Umbridge physically assaulted him and threatened him with the Cruciatus Curse (and had previously sent Dementors to attack him, though this was before she taught the subject).
    • Snape attacked Harry in retaliation for Harry trying to curse him during the Battle of the Astronomy Tower.
    • Ironically, Amycus Carrow, who taught Dark Arts instead of Defence Against the Dark Arts, was attacked by Harry Potter after Amycus had insulted Minerva McGonagall.
  • Dolores Umbridge was the only female Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the series besides Galatea Merrythought; Galatea was not seen throughout the series, only mentioned.
  • The six professors of this subject who taught Harry each had a dark secret that he did not learn until near the end of their respective school years:
    • Quirrell was serving Voldemort and was possessed by him.
    • Lockhart was a cowardly fraud who covertly stole the achievements of others.
    • Lupin was a werewolf.
    • Moody was actually Barty Crouch Jnr, an escaped Death Eater.
    • Umbridge was the one who sent the Dementors that attacked Harry and Dudley.
    • Snape was the one who had reported the prophecy to Voldemort and was the Half-Blood Prince.
  • During his tenure as Potions Master, Severus Snape only accepted students who achieved an 'Outstanding' on their OWLs into his NEWT-level Potions classes. However, when Snape became the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the 1996–1997 school year, students who achieved 'Exceeds Expectations' were still allowed to take the NEWT-level DADA classes.
  • The only book to have twice been assigned for this subject is The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection.
  • Most of the Defence Against the Dark Arts teachers in Harry's six years at Hogwarts followed a similar pattern: each (with the exception of Quirrell and Snape).
    • They were an entirely new teacher; each was chosen out of necessity, due to the loss of the previous instructor and the absence of other applicants
    • each meets Harry before he arrives at Hogwarts in the respective year (with the exception of Mad-Eye Moody, who was only mentioned in passing, although Harry had unknowingly encountered Barty Crouch Jnr at the Quidditch World Cup)
    • and each physically (or magically) attacks Harry during school term, either intentionally or accidentally, as in the case of Remus Lupin.
  • In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, when discussing who their new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher would be, Harry said that the teachers didn't have much luck: "One sacked, one dead, one lost his memory, and one was locked in a trunk for nine months," referring to Lupin, Quirrell, Lockhart, and Moody, respectively; this isn't true, however, because Lupin resigned rather than was fired. Also, Crouch Jnr, the de facto teacher for Harry's fourth year, suffered the Dementor's Kiss.
  • Quirinus Quirrell is the only Defence Against The Dark Arts teacher known to have died during the year he gave the subject.
  • According to Pottermore, from the best to worst Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher during the seven years of Harry's education:
    1. Remus Lupin, for his fair, popular and effective teaching methods.
    2. Severus Snape, for his effective, qualified yet strict methods.
    3. Gilderoy Lockhart, for his fraudulence, teaching about himself more than about defence.
    4. Barty Crouch, for his allegiance with Voldemort, despite his actual teaching effectiveness.
    5. Amycus Carrow, for turning the class into just Dark Arts and his brutal discipline methods.
    6. Dolores Umbridge, for depriving the class of any practicality and her scarring disciplinary methods.
    7. Quirinus Quirrell, for having Voldemort at the back of his head.
  • In Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, if players take Jacob's sibling to the O.W.L. through an optional side quest, they will definitely gain at least an A, even if they fail to answer every question and perform any defensive spells.
  • In the early video games, creatures such as Fire Crabs, Streelers, Gnomes and Dugbogs are covered in Defence Against the Dark Arts classes. However, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them confirms that these creatures are not dark creatures, nor very dangerous, and Fire Crabs and Streelers are in fact taught and handled in Care of Magical Creatures instead, meaning their inclusion on the Defence Against the Dark Arts curriculum is not canon.
  • Also in the early video games, spells such as the Softening Charm or Seize and pull charm are taught in this class, despite these spells seemingly not having any defensive or offensive qualities. It is likely these spells were taught in this class purely for game-play reasons.
  • In LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4, in Gilderoy Lockhart's first Defence Against the Dark Arts lesson, Lockhart teaches his students the Freezing Charm for combating Pixies.[83] However, this lesson cannot be considered canon, since it fundamentally contrasts this lesson's depiction in the second book.

Appearances

Notes and references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald - The Original Screenplay
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 20 (Lord Voldemort's Request)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 1 (Year Five Begins) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Ghoul"
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 5 (Diagon Alley)
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 4 (At Flourish and Blotts)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 5 (The Dementor)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 35 (Veritaserum)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 11 (The Sorting Hat's New Song)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 8 (Snape Victorious)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 12 (Magic is Might)
  11. 11.0 11.1 Harry Potter: Magic Awakened
  12. 12.0 12.1 https://game.163.com/news/2020/06/02/18455_884321.html - a page from the official website of NetEase states that the story starts ten years after the Battle of Hogwarts ("游戏故事时间设定在霍格沃茨大战十年之后")
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry" at Wizarding World
  14. 14.0 14.1 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (film) - Chapter 11 (Gilderoy Lockhart)
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) - Chapter 15 (New Seeker)
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film) - Chapter 14 (Substitute Teacher)
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 12 (Professor Umbridge)
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) - Chapter 10 (Professor Umbridge's Class)
  19. 19.00 19.01 19.02 19.03 19.04 19.05 19.06 19.07 19.08 19.09 19.10 19.11 19.12 19.13 19.14 19.15 19.16 19.17 19.18 19.19 19.20 19.21 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 9 (The Half-Blood Prince)
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 7 (The Boggart in the Wardrobe)
  21. 21.00 21.01 21.02 21.03 21.04 21.05 21.06 21.07 21.08 21.09 21.10 21.11 21.12 21.13 21.14 21.15 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 14 (The Unforgivable Curses)
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 6 (Gilderoy Lockhart)
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 8 (Flight of the Fat Lady)
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 10 (The Marauder's Map)
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 8 (The Potions Master)
  26. 26.0 26.1 Finished ‘Potter’? Rowling tells what happens next at Today (26 Jul 2007)
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 21 (The Unknowable Room)
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 15 (The Hogwarts High Inquisitor)
  29. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 28 (Snape's Worst Memory)
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 31 (O.W.L.s)
  31. 31.0 31.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 29 (Careers Advice)
  32. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 30 (Into the Vault)
  33. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 17 (The Man with Two Faces)
  34. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 13 (Detention with Dolores)
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 29 (The Lost Diadem)
  36. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 15 (The Unbreakable Vow)
  37. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 16 (The Chamber of Secrets)
  38. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 12 (Silver and Opals)
  39. 39.0 39.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 1, Chapter 8 (Preparing for the Room)
  40. 40.0 40.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 2, Chapter 6 (Bill Weasley)
  41. 41.0 41.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 3, Chapter 7 (Jacob's Room)
  42. 42.0 42.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 4, Chapter 4 (Curse-Breakers)
  43. 43.0 43.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 2 (Grave Danger) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Hex-Deflection"
  44. 44.0 44.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 3 (Detention Before Extension) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Impedimenta"
  45. 45.0 45.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 7 (The Life and Death of Duncan Ashe) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Pixies"
  46. 46.0 46.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 8 (Trial by Fire)
  47. 47.0 47.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 13 (Rats and Dogs) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Trip Jinx"
  48. 48.0 48.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 15 (Secrets and Lies) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Deprimo"
  49. 49.0 49.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 17 (Broken Bonds) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Fumos"
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 19 (The Unforgivable Curses) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Lacarnum Inflamari"
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 22 (Agent of Chaos) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Vipera Evanesca"
  52. 52.0 52.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 24 (Dark Pranks) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Reductor Curse"
  53. 53.0 53.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 29 (Final Preparations) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Everte Statum"
  54. 54.0 54.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 26 (Chaos Ensues) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Densaugeo"
  55. 55.0 55.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 28 (About Merula) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Homenum Revelio"
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 5 (Wherefore Art Thou, Weasleys?)
  57. 57.0 57.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 7, Chapter 3 (On the Case) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Chameleon Ghoul"
  58. 58.0 58.1 Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Professor Quirrell" at Wizarding World
  59. Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Gilderoy Lockhart" at Wizarding World
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 60.4 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 10 (The Rogue Bludger)
  61. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 14 (Cornelius Fudge)
  62. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 11 (The Duelling Club)
  63. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 12 (The Patronus)
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 15 (Beauxbatons and Durmstrang)
  65. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 5 (The Order of the Phoenix)
  66. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 18 (Dumbledore's Army)
  67. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 27 (The Centaur and the Sneak)
  68. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 11 (Hermione's Helping Hand)
  69. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 31 (The Battle of Hogwarts)
  70. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 13 (Nicolas Flamel)
  71. Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Werewolves" at Wizarding World
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.3 72.4 72.5 72.6 72.7 72.8 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (video game)
  73. 73.0 73.1 73.2 73.3 73.4 73.5 73.6 73.7 The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection
  74. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 9 (The Midnight Duel)
  75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 75.3 These were all dark creatures Gilderoy Lockhart covered in his official textbooks, according to Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 4 (At Flourish and Blotts).
  76. 76.0 76.1 76.2 76.3 76.4 76.5 76.6 76.7 76.8 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (video game)
  77. 77.0 77.1 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 14 (Snape's Grudge)
  78. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 16 (Professor Trelawney's Prediction)
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 9 (Grim Defeat)
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 80.3 80.4 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (video game)
  82. 82.0 82.1 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 28 (The Madness of Mr Crouch)
  83. 83.0 83.1 LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4
  84. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 8 (Trial by Fire) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Mimblewimble"
  85. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 24 (Return to the Forest) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Banshees"
  86. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 27 (Letting Go) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Flesh-Eating Slugs"
  87. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 42 (The Final Vault) - Defence Against the Dark Lessons Lesson "Kappa"
  88. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 6 (On Jacob's Trail) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Ear Shrivelling Curse"
  89. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 10 (Cloaks and Conflicts) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Langlock"
  90. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 13 (On the Run) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Sea Urchin Jinx"
  91. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 21 (Moving Forward) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Cave Inimicum"
  92. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 32 (Quest for Polyjuice) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Imperturbable Charm"
  93. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 6, Chapter 37 (Entering the Black Lake!) - Defence Against the Dark Arts Lesson "Stretching Jinx"
  94. http://www.accio-quote.org/articles/2007/0726-today-vieira1.html
  95. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 18 (Moony, Wormtail, Padfoot and Prongs) Remus Lupin - "“I was a very small boy when I received the bite...But then Dumbledore became Headmaster, and he was sympathetic." Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Remus Lupin" at Wizarding World - Lupin was attacked shortly before his fifth birthday (March 1965) and Headmaster Dumbledore comes to visit shortly before his eleventh birthday (March 1971) so Dumbledore succeeded Dippet as headmaster during this time.
  96. 96.0 96.1 96.2 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 5 (An Excess of Phlegm)
  97. 97.0 97.1 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 4 (At Flourish and Blotts) - It is said that both Percy and Bill Weasley earned twelve Ordinary Wizarding Levels, meaning they must have earned an O.W.L. in this subject.
  98. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 25 (The Beetle at Bay)
  99. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (video game)
  100. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery (see this image)
  101. http://web.archive.org/web/20040619155715/http://www.quick-quote-quill.org/articles/2003/0626-alberthall-fry.htm
  102. Interview from Quick Quote Quill
  103. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 2 (Spinner's End)


Defence Against the Dark Arts (D.A.D.A.)
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D.A.D.A. at Hogwarts
Classroom 3C · Classroom 3C backrooms · Temporary Classroom · Hogwarts Turris Magnus · Teacher's Office · Storeroom · Staircase · Storage room · Lesson Cup · Race Cup · Duelling Club · Dumbledore's Army
Professors
Arsenius Jigger · Albus Dumbledore · Galatea Merrythought · 1984–1985 professor · 1985–1986 professor · 1986–1987 professor · 1987–1988 professor · Patricia Rakepick · 1989–1990 professor · Quirinus Quirrell · Gilderoy Lockhart · Remus Lupin · Bartemius Crouch Junior (as Alastor Moody) · Dolores Umbridge · Severus Snape · Amycus Carrow (as Dark Arts teacher) · Unidentified professor · Brindlemore
Textbooks
The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection · Advanced Defence Against the Dark Arts · Break with a Banshee · Gadding with Ghouls · Holidays with Hags · Travels with Trolls · Voyages with Vampires · Wanderings with Werewolves · Year with the Yeti · The Essential Defence Against the Dark Arts · Defensive Magical Theory · Dark Arts Defence – Basics for Beginners · Confronting the Faceless · Defence Against the Dark Arts
Spells studied at Hogwarts under D.A.D.A.
Aqua Eructo · Boggart-Banishing Spell (Riddikulus) · Cave inimicum · Counter-curses · Counter-jinxes · Cruciatus Curse (Crucio) · Curse of the Bogies (Mucus ad Nasuem) · Cursed barrier spell · Densaugeo · Deprimo · Disarming Charm (Expelliarmus) · Ear-Shrivelling Curse · Everte Statum · Freezing Spell (Glacius) · Full Body-Bind Curse (Petrificus Totalus) · Fumos Duo · Green Sparks · Hex-Breaker· Hex-deflection · Hex Zapper · Homorphus Charm · Human-presence-revealing Spell (Homenium Revelio) · Impediment Jinx (Impedimenta) · Imperius Curse (Imperio) · Imperturbable Charm · Killing Curse (Avada Kedavra) · Knockback Jinx (Flipendo) · Lacarnum Inflamari · Langlock · Limbo Mist anticharm · Nonverbal spells · Patronus Charm (Expecto Patronus) · Protective enchantments · Red Sparks (Vermillious) · Reductor Curse (Reducto) · Salvio hexia · Sea Urchin Jinx · Seize and pull charm (Carpe Rectratum) · Shield Charm (Protego) · Smokescreen Spell (Fumos) · Snake-Vanishing Spell (Vipera Evanesca) · Softening Charm (Spongify) · Stretching Jinx · Tickling Charm (Rictusempra) · Tongue-Tying Curse (Mimble Wimble) · Trip Jinx · Twitchy-Ears Hex · Verdimillious Charm (Verdimillous) · Verdimillious Duo Spell (Verdimillous) · Verdimillious Tria · Vermillious Duo · Vermillious Tria · Wand-Lighting Charm (Lumos)
Creatures studied at Hogwarts under D.A.D.A.
Banshee · Boggart · Chameleon Ghoul · Charmed skeleton · Cornish Pixie · Dementor · Erkling · Flesh-Eating Slug · Ghost · Ghoul · Grindylow · Gytrash · Hag · Hinkypunk · Iguana · Imp · Inferius · Kappa · Nocturnal beasts · Red Cap · Snake · Troll · Vampire · Vampire bat · Werewolf · Yeti · Zombie
Hogwarts Curriculum
Core classes Astronomy · Charms · Defence Against the Dark Arts · Herbology · History of Magic · Potions · Transfiguration
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Elective classes Alchemy · Arithmancy · Care of Magical Creatures · Divination · Muggle Studies · Study of Ancient Runes
Extracurricular classes Apparition · Advanced Arithmancy Studies · Ancient Studies · Art · Flying · Ghoul Studies · Magical Theory · Muggle Art · Muggle Music · Music · Xylomancy
Examinations
First year exams · Second year exams · Third year exams · Fourth year exams ·
Ordinary Wizarding Level · Nastily Exhausting Wizarding Test
Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry
Ilvermorny Houses
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Namesake Founders
Isolt Sayre · Webster Boot · Chadwick Boot · James Steward
Subjects offered
Arithmancy · Charms · Creature Care · Defence Against the Dark Arts · Potions · Study of Ancient Runes · Transfiguration · Xylomancy
Ilvermorny staff
Agilbert Fontaine · Eulalie Hicks · Rionach Steward · William
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