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"Non-magic people (more commonly known as Muggles) were particularly afraid of magic in medieval times, but not very good at recognising it."
A History of Magic by Bathilda Bagshot[src]

Non-magic people, commonly known as Muggles in Great Britain, No-Maj(e)s in the United States,[3] among other names (see below), were humans who were born to two non-magical parents and were incapable of performing magic. Non-magic people were not to be confused with Squibs, who also lacked magic but were born to at least one magical parent.[2]

Most non-magic people had been unaware that magic and the wizarding world existed since the establishment of the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy in 1692, as wizards had organised their own society largely separate from the Non-magic world. Exceptions included close relatives of wizards and witches and heads of government (such as the British Prime Minister).[6]

Naming

Non-magic people were known by different denominations and nicknames across nations.

  • In the British wizarding world, the term "Muggle" was widely used to refer to a non-magic person. Some might consider it derogatory, but it was in fact often used affectionately. Arthur Weasley, for example, who had great fondness for Muggles and learning about them and their way of life, often used that term.[2][7][8]
  • "Mudblood" was an extremely offensive and derogatory term referring to Muggle-borns and Muggles.[2]
  • In the United States, they were known by the clipping No-Maj, whose plural may be either No-Majs or No-Majes.[9]
  • Other English-language terms for non-magic people included Can't-Spells and Non-Wizards.[4]
  • In France, they were known as Non-Magiques, which was a simple translation of the term "non-magic".[5]

The Muggle and wizarding worlds

Wizarding law

"Each wizarding governing body will be responsible for the concealment, care and control of all magical beasts, beings, and spirits dwelling within its territory's borders. Should any such creature cause harm to, or draw the notice of, the Muggle community, that nation's wizarding governing body will be subject to discipline by the International Confederation of Wizards."
— Clause 73 of International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy[src]

Since the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy was enacted in 1692, wizards and witches had hidden the existence of magic from Muggles.[10] Thus, in the modern age, most Muggles believed magic to be nothing but a childish fantasy. Wizards and witches hid their world with Muggle-Repelling Charms, and if a Muggle witnessed a magical event or saw a magical creature such as a dragon, their memories were erased. Confundus Charms were also occasionally employed to encourage Muggles to ignore any magic they witnessed. Violations of the Statute of Secrecy were prosecuted by the Improper Use of Magic Office, and the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office tried to keep bewitched items away from Muggles.[2]

The Muggle Liaison Office was a division of the Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes presumably responsible for wizard-Muggle relations.[6] Given the lack of Muggle awareness of the wizarding world, in accordance with the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy of 1692, it can be presumed that the Muggle Liaison Office fulfilled its duties in a very one-sided manner. Those who worked in Muggle Relations presumably worked with this office.

Hogsmeade Village, an exclusively magical settlement

Wizards and witches thus organised their own society, known as the wizarding world, distinct from that of Muggles. There were some exclusively magical settlements, such as Hogsmeade, but also magical communities hidden within largely Muggle ones, such as in Ottery St Catchpole and even in London. Magical people also had a separate currency system and government. The British Ministry of Magic maintained relations with the Muggle Prime Minister, but they did not appear to be subordinate to the Muggle government.[1]

Overlapping of worlds

"Most wizards these days are half-blood anyway. If we hadn't married Muggles we'd've died out."
— Ron Weasley discussing blood purity[src]

Muggle Mrs Cole and wizard Albus Dumbledore talking about Tom Riddle

However, the Muggle and magical worlds were tied together in some ways. For instance, Muggles sometimes married wizards or witches and thus became aware of the wizarding world, as occurred with Mr Finnigan when he married a witch, or Hope Howell when she married Lyall Lupin.[1]

Muggles also occasionally produced a magical child. It was generally believed that this occurred due to a Squib having married into the family at some point in the past, thus introducing the potential for magic into the bloodline. This potential often surfaced many generations later.[11]

In Britain, these Muggle-born wizards and witches would often join the wizarding world when they were invited to attend Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.[1][2] The Muggle parents would thus be informed of the existence of the wizarding world, and might even enter it on occasion, as Hermione Granger's parents did when they accompanied their daughter and the Weasley family to Diagon Alley to shop for school supplies in 1992.[2] It is unknown if Muggle parents were allowed to visit Hogwarts Hospital Wing or St Mungo's when serious illness befell their child. However, Muggle parents were allowed to see wizarding pictures of the school, as Muggle-born Colin Creevey was known to take numerous pictures and sent them home to his father.[2]

Muggles Mr and Mrs Granger with wizard Arthur Weasley in Diagon Alley

Some Muggles were aware of the magical world but chose to ignore it, such as Vernon Dursley, who was aware his sister-in-law was a witch but otherwise remained intentionally ignorant of the wizarding world until he was forced to recognise it with the arrival of his nephew, Harry Potter.[1]

In addition, there were secret connections maintained between the two societies at the governmental level; for example, the Minister for Magic occasionally consulted with the Prime Minister of Great Britain on issues affecting both societies, and it is clear that the Prime Minister was aware of the wizarding world. Each Prime Minister, on the day they were appointed to office, got a visit from the current Minister for Magic. The visit encompassed telling the Prime Minister of the existence of magic and that they would only ever need to meet when there was something going on in the wizarding world that might affect the Muggle world.[6]

Attitude towards magic

"Wizards represent all that the true 'Muggle' most fears: They are plainly outcasts and comfortable with being so. Nothing is more unnerving to the truly conventional than the unashamed misfit!"
J. K. Rowling regarding how Muggles view wizards[src]

The Muggle Dursley family, who despised and feared magic

Historically, Muggles tended to consider those who practised magic to be evil, leading to the burning of witches during the Middle Ages. In response, some wizards and witches managed to use Flame-Freezing Charms to render the fire harmless. Thus, most considered the Muggle efforts completely useless.[12] Some innocent Muggles were being burned as witches, magical children born to Muggles were often persecuted when their magical abilities surfaced, and some Muggles tried to make magical people perform magic for their own ends.

Magical creatures left the Muggle world too, as many of them were extinguished, probably because of over-hunting and ecosystem destruction.[10] In addition to Muggles being a threat to magical creatures, it was also vise versa, with magical creatures being a threat to Muggles as well. Giants for example were responsible for some of the First Wizarding War's worst atrocities against the Muggle community. Also Muggles believed that dragons were a mere myth, but had been known on occasion to glimpse these beasts. To prevent dragons from being seen by Muggles, the beasts were kept on dragon reserves around the world, most of which were far from human habitation.[10]

Muggle dentists Mr and Mrs Granger, who were accepting of magic

In the modern world, few Muggles believed in magic to actually know of its existence and were rather ambivalent with that knowledge. Some who were aware of the wizarding world were accepting of and even fascinated by it, such as Hermione Granger's parents[2] and Jacob Kowalski. Others, however, responded negatively. For instance, the Dursley family had a "very medieval" attitude towards magic. Petunia Dursley considered her sister Lily Potter a "freak" for her abilities, although this was originally prompted by envy of them. She would not have thought of her sister like this if she too had those powers.[13] Petunia, her husband, and son were suspicious of magic, thus they treated their wizard nephew Harry Potter badly and distrusted anyone associated with magic. They also tried to prevent him from learning of his magical heritage, without success.[1]

The No-Maj Barebone family, who deeply hated magic

In the United States, the Barebone family (who were a No-Maj family that descended from one of the Scourers who escaped justice during the 17th century) were marked by a profound belief in the existence of magic and an equally deep hatred of it, which they passed down the generations. Bartholomew Barebone had an intensely deep hatred of witches and wizards that caused his desire to expose the existence of the wizarding world, which propelled one of the largest ever breaches of the International Statute of Secrecy. In the 1920s, his descendant Mary Lou Barebone was the leader of the "fanatical" anti-witchcraft group the New Salem Philanthropic Society, also known as the Second Salemers, which sought to expose and destroy wizardkind.[9]

Ariana Dumbledore was attacked and severely traumatised by Muggle boys after they saw her use magic and she was unable to show them how to do it.[13] Tom Marvolo Riddle also once suggested that his Muggle father abandoned Merope Gaunt, his pregnant wife because he discovered that she was a witch.[14]

It had been suggested by some wizards and witches that Muggles chose, on some level, not to believe in magic, since there were inevitably some occasions at which they were exposed to magic but seemed to ignore it or attribute it to other causes.[2]

Wizarding views

Negative views

"Alecto... teaches Muggle Studies, which is compulsory for everyone. We've all got to listen to her explain how Muggles are like animals, stupid and dirty, and how they drive wizards into hiding by being vicious toward them, and how the natural order is being re-established."
— Neville Longbottom on Death Eaters' teaching while Lord Voldemort was in power[src]

Many magical people, particularly pure-bloods, considered their own world superior to that of Muggles.[1][2][13] Some considered Muggles little better than animals and hated them.[15] For example, Araminta Meliflua once proposed that the British Ministry of Magic make Muggle hunting legal.[16]

The Magic is Might statue that depict Muggles in their 'rightful' place

The Dark Wizard Gellert Grindelwald originally intended to conquer the world and make Muggles subservient to wizards.[17] He did not have any hostility towards Muggles as a whole but, due to his abilities as a Seer, foresaw a major Muggle war involving catastrophic weapons that could be used against wizards. He would reveal this to his followers at a rally, using it as an example of the kind of violence that could be checked if muggles were under wizard guidance.[4]

Lord Voldemort and his Death Eaters had a far more extreme ideology. They tortured and killed Muggles for amusement during the First and Second Wizarding Wars. They often extend this hatred to Muggle-borns as well, considering them to be unworthy of magic and not "real" wizards or witches. During the Second Wizarding War, Muggle-borns were rounded up by the Ministry of Magic (on Voldemort's orders) and accused of stealing magic from wizards; a way of thoroughly humiliating them instead of killing them outright. In 1997 during the height of the Second Wizarding War a statue was created that illustrated Muggles in their "rightful place", crushed by the might that is magic. This statue resided in the Ministry atrium and acted as a symbol of Lord Voldemort's new regime.[13]

Pure-bloods who had such prejudices, such as many members of the the Malfoy and Black families, considered those sympathetic to muggles "blood traitors" for their belief in Muggle equality and attempts to protect them.[2][13] Brutus Malfoy once claimed that it was a sign of weak magic to enjoy the company of Muggles,[18] and his descendant Lucius Malfoy tried to sabotage Arthur Weasley's career after he proposed the Muggle Protection Act in 1992.[2]

Muggle-baiting

Muggle-baiting was activity which used magic to confuse or humiliate Muggles without the Muggles realising that magic was involved. When Willy Widdershins rigged up regurgitating toilets, he and others were referred to as "Anti-Muggle pranksters".[19]

Shrinking keys were an example of a mundane object enchanted by unscrupulous wizards for "Muggle-baiting". The keys were sold to unsuspecting Muggles, who then couldn't find them and, being unaware of magic, believed that they kept misplacing them. Similarly, a biting kettle was an enchanted object which looked like an ordinary teakettle, until an unwary person attempted to use it, in which case it bit the user. Arthur Weasley turned up one of these on one of his nighttime raids, which indicates that they were Muggle items enchanted illegally as opposed to joke items one might purchase at Zonko's Joke Shop.[19]

In more serious cases, such objects might cause serious harm to their victims. In 1995, two Muggles had to be admitted to St Mungo's after losing fingers to biting doorknobs that they had purchased from Widdershins. Their bones were regrown and their memories were modified, after which they were presumably released. Arthur Weasley believed the incident would result in legal consequences for Widdershins.[20]

United States of America

Rappaport's Law, absolute segregation

In the United States, Non-magic people were known as No-Maj(e)s. Unlike in Europe, where a degree of covert cooperation and communication between No-Maj governments and their magical counterparts was common, MACUSA acted totally independently of the No-Maj government, working diligently to keep the wizarding world a secret. While culturally, wizarding America did not hold supremacist views against No-Majs over blood purity, their fear of exposure led to further divide.[21]

Rappaport's Law was instituted by Emily Rappaport, the 15th President of MACUSA, in 1790 after one of the most catastrophic breaches of the International Statute of Secrecy of all time occured that year. This event caused the No-Maj population in America to become as a whole unusually suspicious of magic. As a result, unlike the European culture of witches and wizards often underestimating the intelligence of Muggles, seeing them as incapable of comprehending the existence of magic, American witches and wizards came to regard No-Majes as a major threat. This led to Rappaport's Law completely segregating the No-Maj and magical communities in the United States. Mixed marriage between magical and non-magical folk was illegal under this law until 1965, when the law was repealed.[21]

Interaction with the No-Maj population was only allowed for everyday activities. Due to the law, students from Ilvermorny were not allowed wands before they entered the school, nor to take them home during vacations. By the 1920s, MACUSA had several special offices responsible for enforcing Rappaport's Law. Among these were a sub-division focusing on No-Maj Fraternisation and an office that issued and verified wand permits for every witch and wizard in the United States.[21]

Positive views

"Fascinating. Ingenious, really, how many ways Muggles have found of getting along without magic."
Arthur Weasley's appreciation for Muggles and their technology[src]

Others, however had more favourable opinions. The Ministry also tried to protect Muggles from the Dark Arts and other potentially harmful magic things with its Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office.[2] Muggle Studies was also an optional subject at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry that strove to educate magical children about the Muggle world and to foster understanding of it.[12] One witch, Carlotta Pinkstone, famously advocated for the repeal of the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy. She believed in the idea that Muggles should know about magic, and performed magic publicly on several occasions.[22]

Harry Potter surrounded by Arthur Weasley's collection of Muggle objects

Arthur Weasley was very interested in how Muggles function without the aid of magic, and collected Muggle items, though he often got their names and other facts wrong.[2] He had a large collection of batteries and electric plugs.[7] He was ecstatic to meet Hermione Granger's Muggle parents, inviting them to have a drink with him at the Leaky Cauldron.[2] During Harry Potter's stays at the Burrow, Arthur often sat next to Harry to ask him questions about Muggles. He was also interested to learn how the Muggle post office and telephone work,[2] and his greatest ambition was to learn how aeroplanes stay up.[23] Whenever he got the chance to use Muggle artefacts, he enjoyed himself immensely.[2]

Some Muggle pastimes had also found favour with those in the wizarding world. Famously, Albus Dumbledore's Chocolate Frog Card proclaimed his liking of the Muggle sport of ten-pin bowling, and he also developed a fondness for a Muggle sweet called sherbet lemons.[1] Some elements of Muggle pop culture had also bled over into wizarding culture, such as rock and roll music, which was performed by groups such as the Weird Sisters.[24] The concept of "tabloid journalism" was also alive in the wizarding world.

Studying Muggles

The Institute of Muggle Studies was a wizarding institute that studied and researched about Muggles. Recently, the Institute of Muggle Studies had made research about Muggle-born wizards' wizarding ancestry[25] and Muggles' knowledge and perception of magic.[26]

The Museum of Muggle Curiosities was a museum in Carkitt Market, in the wizarding quarter of London. Items on display included several Muggle electronics, such as microwaves, old televisions, radios, electric fans, and desk lamps.[27] It was located between Dr Filibuster's Fireworks and Cogg and Bell Clockmakers.

Published works

"A long-awaited Ministry for Magic report made public today warns against the dangers of underestimating Muggles."
Daily Prophet newsletter[src]

There had been various pieces of media that revolved around Muggle studies. For example, there had been many different published works and there was an entire class of the same name at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry that devolved into the subject.

Home Life and Social Habits of British Muggles by Wilhelm Wigworthy

Home Life and Social Habits of British Muggles was a book written by Wilhelm Wigworthy and a guide to Muggle life. It was also a required textbook for third-year Muggle Studies. The book was published by Little Red Books in 1987 and, among other things, it explained what electricity was.[12]

A Study into Muggle Suspicions about Magic[28] was a Ministry of Magic report warning against the dangers of underestimating how much magic Muggles noticed. Professor Phoebus Penrose headed a committee which produced this report about Muggle suspicions about magic. Among other magical examples, it noted that Muggles had noticed, and had suspicions about, mysterious flying objects, the Loch Ness monster, and crop circles left behind after the Contorting Cereals class of the Annual Wizard Gardening Competition. The report concluded that Muggles were more observant than wizards thought.[28]

Muggles Not as Stupid as We Think was a Ministry report and headline for the lead article in the Daily Prophet. This article outlined the findings of a report by a committee, headed by Professor Phoebus Penrose, entitled A Study into Muggle Suspicions about Magic.

Other works

Hogwarts elective

Muggle Studies was a course in the history, culture, science, technology and psychology of non-magical people. The class attempted to help young witches and wizards understand the difference between the way Muggles thought and the way wizards thought. When Ron Weasley called a telephone a "fellytone", Hermione Granger told him he should consider taking Muggle Studies. Students typically began taking Muggle Studies in their third year.[12] Muggle Studies was a prerequisite for jobs in Muggle relations. According to Percy Weasley, many students considered Muggle Studies to be a "soft option", meaning that it was an easy class. However, he went on to say that he personally thought "wizards should have a thorough understanding of the non-magical community, particularly if they're thinking of working in close contact with them".[2]

Ernie Macmillan apparently took Muggle Studies in his third year and Hermione passed Muggle Studies with a 312% grade in her third year, but dropped the course to give herself a more reasonable schedule in her fourth.[12] Muggle Studies was offered through O.W.L. level, and there was an O.W.L. examination in the subject. There also were N.E.W.T.-level Muggle Studies classes.[29]

Characteristics

Although Muggles had no magical abilities, they had technology to make up for it. But many forms of sophisticated Muggle technology, such as electricity, naturally did not work well inside the wizarding world. The technology in question had to be magically powered, such as Arthur Weasley's Ford Anglia.[2] Muggles very rarely understood magic, even going to extreme lengths (and sometimes making themselves seem rather foolish to wizards) to ignore obvious occurrences of magic, and wizards very rarely understood technology.[30]

Even though the Muggles lacked magic, they still posed a threat to the wizarding world.[2] During the 17th century, as wizard-Muggle relations hit their lowest point, the newly-created British Ministry of Magic enacted the International Statute of Secrecy to attempt to permanently separate the wizarding and Muggle communities. In the modern day, the Minister for Magic and the Prime Minister maintained a good relationship to ensure the safety of both worlds.[6]

Muggle families

Family Known individuals Notes
Babatola[31] Michael Babatola Nurse who worked at St David's Hospital
Barebone Bartholomew Barebone 18th-century No-Maj who tricked the witch Dorcus Twelvetrees into revealing many details about the wizarding world
Mary Lou Barebone No-Maj woman who led the "fanatical" anti-Magic group the Society New Salem Philanthropic Society in the 1920s
Chastity Barebone Adopted daughters of Mary Lou
Modesty Barebone
Bryce Frank Bryce The gardener for the Riddle family, murdered by Lord Voldemort
Chalk[31] Howard Chalk A farmer
Creevey Mr Creevey A milkman and father of Colin and Dennis Creevey
Dursley Mrs Dursley Mother of Vernon and Marjorie Dursley
Vernon Dursley Husband of Petunia, father of Dudley, and director of a drill making company called Grunnings
Marjorie Dursley Sister of Vernon and a breeder of bulldogs
Dudley Dursley Only child of Vernon and Petunia
Dudley's children The two[32] children of Dudley Dursley and his wife
Evans Mr Evans Parents of Petunia and Lily Evans
Mrs Evans
Petunia Evans-Dursley Older sister of Lily, wife of Vernon Dursley, and mother of Dudley Dursley
Granger Mr Granger Dentists and parents of Hermione Granger
Mrs Granger
Harrison[31] Don Harrison A construction foreman
Bethany Harrison Daughter of Don Harrison
Kowalski Jacob Kowalski A No-Maj factory worker and later baker who befriended Newt Scamander
Mr Kowalski Brother of Jacob; killed during World War I
Mason Mr Mason A rich builder
Mrs Mason Wife of Mr Mason
McGonagall William McGonagall A Scottish poet
Mr McGonagall Parents of Reverend Robert McGonagall Snr and grandparents of Minerva, Malcolm, and Robert McGonagall Jr
Mrs McGonagall
Robert McGonagall Snr A Muggle Reverend and Presbyterian minister who lived in Scotland. Husband of Isobel Ross and father of Minerva McGonagall and her siblings, Malcolm and Robert Jnr
McGregor Dougal McGregor The son of a farmer
Monk Dave Monk A reporter for Metro, a British Muggle newspaper. Husband of Tilly

and father of twins Jack and Tom

Pepper[31] Mr Pepper Parents of Hugo and Janice
Mrs Pepper
Hugo Pepper Brother of Janice Pepper
Riddle Thomas Riddle Parents of Tom Riddle Snr and grandparents of Tom Marvolo Riddle, murdered by their grandson in 1943
Mary Riddle
Tom Riddle Snr The son of Thomas and Mary. He later married Merope Gaunt and was the father of the Dark Wizard Lord Voldemort
Roberts Mr Roberts A campground manager
Mrs Roberts Mr Roberts' wife
Roberts children The couple's children
Scott[31] Megan Scott Found unconscious in a Yorkshire graveyard by Mathilda Grimblehawk and her partner after she was attacked.
Shaw Henry Shaw Senior An American newspaper magnate and owner of Shaw News; father of Henry Shaw Junior and Langdon
Henry Shaw Junior A U.S. Senator for the State of New York in the 1920s; oldest son of Henry Shaw Senior and brother of Langdon
Langdon Shaw Younger son of Henry Shaw Senior
Snape Tobias Snape Husband of Eileen Prince and father of Severus Snape
Steward Martha Steward Mother of James Steward
James Steward An English stonemason and later one of the four founders of Ilvermorny; husband of Isolt Sayre and father of Martha and Rionach Steward
Thomas Mrs Thomas Mother of Dean Thomas
Dean Thomas's stepfather Married to Mrs Thomas and the father of several children
Dean Thomas's half-siblings The children of Mr Thomas and Mrs Thomas
Thorn[31] Laura Thorn Professional monster hunter and author. She wrote at least one book, Hoax and Dreams
Tudor Henry VII King of England from 1485 to 1509; father of King Henry VIII and grandfather of Queens Mary I and Elizabeth I
Henry VIII King of England from 1509 to 1547; father of Elizabeth I by Anne Boleyn and Mary I by Catherine of Aragon
Elizabeth I Queen regnant of England and Ireland from 1558 to 1603
Tyler[31] Catherine Tyler Megan Scott's grandmother
Tonks Ted Tonks' parents Ted Tonks' parents were Muggles

Muggle inventions

Muggles had found many fascinating ways to make up for their lack of magic, using technology to perform tasks for which wizards used magic. Examples of such inventions included:

Commerical inventions:

War/combat inventions:

  • Firearms, guns, the weapon of choice for Muggles (often called "firelegs" by some Ministry officials or a metal wand)
  • Tanks, armoured vehicles typically outfitted with large, rotating cannons.
  • Nuclear bombs, the most powerful weapons invented by Muggles. Despite their incredible destructive power, Muggles were hesitant to use them, and had only deployed them twice during the Second World War.

Etymology

Muggle is derived from the word "mug", which refers to a gullible person. J. K. Rowling has commented that she added a syllable to soften the word, which she wanted to suggest "both foolishness and lovability".[33] In the Brazilian translation of the series the term "muggle" was adapted to "trouxa", which literally means "fool", albeit not necessarily lovable at all. Wizards define themselves in contrast to muggle, since the words "wizard" and "wisdom" have a common etymological origin.[34]

See also

Behind the scenes

Appearances

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Notes and references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Fantastic Beasts: Rowling reveals the American word for 'Muggle' from Entertainment Weekly
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald - The Original Screenplay
  5. 5.0 5.1 " Fantastic Beasts director reveals the French world for 'muggle' from Entertainment Weekly
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 1 (The Other Minister)
  7. 7.0 7.1 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 4 (Back to The Burrow)
  8. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 5 (An Excess of Phlegm)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them: The Original Screenplay
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them
  11. J.K. Rowling and the Live Chat, Bloomsbury.com, 30 July, 2007
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
  14. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 33 (The Death Eaters)
  15. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 29 (The Lost Diadem)
  16. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 6 (The Noble and Most Ancient House of Black)
  17. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 18 (The Life and Lies of Albus Dumbledore)
  18. The Tales of Beedle the Bard - "The Wizard and the Hopping Pot"
  19. 19.0 19.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
  20. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 22 (St Mungo's Hospital for Magical Maladies and Injuries)
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Rappaport's Law" at Wizarding World
  22. 22.0 22.1 J. K. Rowling's official site
  23. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 5 (An Excess of Phlegm)
  24. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 23 (The Yule Ball)
  25. Sixteenth question of the Third W.O.M.B.A.T. at J. K. Rowling's official site
  26. Seventeenth question of the Third W.O.M.B.A.T. at J. K. Rowling's official site
  27. "Diagon Alley at Universal Orlando" - Flickr account of insidethemagic (see this image)
  28. 28.0 28.1 Daily Prophet Newsletters
  29. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 7, Muggle Studies classes
  30. Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Technology" at Wizarding World
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 Fantastic Beasts: Cases from the Wizarding World
  32. After "Harry Potter", J. K. Rowling's First Novel for Adults at The New Yorker
  33. 33.0 33.1 2004 World Book Day Chat
  34. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=wizard
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