"Professors have a long and valued history within the wizarding world. We teach across a broad set of specialised subjects and mould young minds. But don't be fooled, while some may underestimate us, Professors are never to be trifled with. Look no further than the Battle of Hogwarts for your proof."
Minerva McGonagall addressing members of the S.O.S. wanting to pursue a career as a Professor.[src]
Sorcerers-stone professors

Hogwarts' professors Flitwick, Quirrell, and Hooch in the Defence Against the Dark Arts classroom

The title of Professor is given to members of the wizarding scientific and scholarly community engaged in education and research, taken as a whole.

It is, perhaps most notably, used by teachers at wizarding educational institutions such as Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, Durmstrang Institute, and Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. It is considered rude by some for students to not address a member of a teaching staff on their school as professor, Madam[1] or Sir,[2] as is the case with Professor Snape. Harry Potter often chose to omit this title when speaking of Snape to others, leading them to chastise him. However, the most notable exception to this is Rubeus Hagrid, who is usually referred to by his surname.

The term Sir or Madam (depending on the gender) is an alternative title to use instead of Professor, on the speaker's preference. While talking to their colleagues, they usually use their first name. Professor Snape, however, preferred to use others' surnames. For example, he called Remus Lupin, Lupin, and Gilderoy Lockhart, Professor Lockhart in the Duelling Club in 1992. The exception to this would be Professor McGonagall, whom Professor Snape called Minerva.

Powers and rights

House points hourglass

Teacher have the power to deduct points from misbehaving students

Professors have the power to award and dock points (to determine the winner of the house cup competition), give detention, and write notes for certain areas and activities that are usually off limits. Examples is how Hogwarts Professors can grant permission to such locations as the Restricted Section in the Hogwarts Library or permission to practise on the Quidditch pitch.

Professors have no right to use magical or physical force to assault students (at least under Headmaster Albus Dumbledore), as Professor "Moody" was reprimanded by Minerva McGonagall for turning Draco Malfoy into a ferret, while Dumbledore threatened Dolores Umbridge for violently shaking Marietta Edgecombe. They can put students in detention, but cannot expel them without the approval of the Headmaster.

Life outside of classes

Many Hogwarts professors reside at the school during the school year, though this is not always the case. During the 1980s, Minerva McGonagall owned a cottage in nearby Hogsmeade with her husband, later moving out after his death. A teacher could also visit a home by means of Apparition, the Floo Network, or a Portkey. In the summer of 1996, Severus Snape returned to his childhood house in Spinner's End.

Those who remain at the school throughout the night seem to have private quarters, similar to apartments/flats, that are near or attached to their offices. A Head of House probably has private quarters near their House's common. On at least one occasion, Professor McGonagall could hear the noise of a party in the Gryffindor common room from wherever she was sleeping.

Professors typically eat meals with the students in the Great Hall, but this is not required. Sybill Trelawney often preferred to eat alone in her classroom. When Harry Potter attended his first Divination class with her in 1993, she mentioned that some of the students might not have seen her before.

Each Professor seems to have at least one "free" period during the school week. Harry Potter's third-year Defence Against the Dark Arts class saw Professor Snape in the staffroom once. Snape was also available to serve as a substitute teacher when Remus Lupin was, unbeknownst to the same group of students, ill from the effects of a werewolf transformation. Harry's fifth-year Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, Dolores Umbridge, sent him to Professor McGonagall after he argued with her during a lesson. McGonagall was in her office.

During the second term of each year, a Head of House holds career counselling meetings with each of their fifth-year students, advising them on what N.E.W.T.-level classes they should take in preparation for their desired careers.

When a weekend Apparition Course take place at the school, a Head of House attends and helps to oversee the participating students from their House.


Rubeus Hagrid

Rubeus Hagrid, the only Professor known not to have received his O.W.L.s

It is presumed that wizards and witches do not need any form of specific education or training if they wish to become teachers. They should possess knowledge and skill in the subject of their teaching, and preferably hold an O.W.L. and a N.E.W.T. in the subject. Sometimes a Headmaster/Headmistress will hire someone who did not sit the O.W.L. exams.

Dumbledore chose Rubeus Hagrid as a Care of Magical Creatures Professor in 1993, even though Hagrid was expelled from Hogwarts during his third year. In 1996, Dumbledore hired Firenze, who, as a Centaur, had never attended a human school. On the other hand, he refused to hire Tom Riddle, knowing his ill intents despite his superior qualifications. Of course, this all depends on who is the current Head in question.

At least three years of after-school life experience are necessary. Both Minerva McGonagall and Severus Snape were hired when they were twenty-one years old. When Tom Riddle graduated from Hogwarts, he immediately asked then-Headmaster Armando Dippet if he could teach Defence Against the Dark Arts. Dippet considered him to be too young at age eighteen, but invited him to return in a few years and apply again.

Severus Snape Profile

Severus Snape, a teacher who demanded to be referred to as Professor or Sir

Even acquiring a post as Professor, teachers may temporarily return to the outside world to continue their practical studies. Quirinus Quirrell left his post as Muggle Studies instructor for a year-long sabbatical, allegedly to "gain first-hand experience" in Defence Against the Dark Arts so he can teach it the following year.

When Dumbledore hired Gilderoy Lockhart, simply to expose him as a fraud to the wizarding world, Professor McGonagall asked what can be learned from such a vain man. Dumbledore replied that much can be learned even from a bad teacher: what not to do, how not to be.

When the Ministry of Magic took on more tyrannical methods of trying to wrest control of Hogwarts from Dumbledore, they imposed an Educational Decree allowing them to implant a professor into the staff should the Headmaster fail to find a suitable candidate. This led to the installation of Dolores Umbridge, who showed her own inability to teach Defence Against the Dark Arts properly, revealing that the Ministry would prefer to a figurehead to deliver politically authorised theories, rather than a genuine professor with practical qualifications.

Known professors


Professor Subject Other roles and notes
Godric Gryffindor Unknown Hogwarts founder, Head of Gryffindor
Rowena Ravenclaw Hogwarts founder, Head of Ravenclaw
Helga Hufflepuff Hogwarts founder, Head of Hufflepuff
Salazar Slytherin Hogwarts founder, Head of Slytherin
Albus Dumbledore Transfiguration, Unknown-1956
Defence Against the Dark Arts, c. 1913-1927
Headmaster, 1956-1997
Alecto Carrow Muggle Studies, 1997-1998 Appointed by Voldemort, was also in charge of punishment.
Amycus Carrow Dark Arts, 1997-1998 Appointed by Voldemort, was also in charge of punishment.
Aurora Sinistra Astronomy A witch who teaches at the Astronomy Tower.
Professor Bartholomew Potions hundreds of years ago. Taught in the Potions Classroom, co-conspirator to Charms Professor Fortinbras in researching the fabled Cursed Vaults, intent on seeing the power within in the 'right hands'.
Bathsheda Babbling Study of Ancient Runes Teaches in Classroom 6A on sixth floor.
Bartemius Crouch Jr Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1994-1995 Barty Crouch Jr posing as Alastor Moody by using Polyjuice Potion; aided in a plan to use Harry to revive Voldemort; given the Dementor's Kiss after capture.
Charity Burbage Muggle Studies, 1993-1997 Took over Muggle Studies in 1993; killed by Voldemort at Malfoy Manor for expressing pro-Muggle views.
Cuthbert Binns History of Magic Ghost; fell asleep in front of the staffroom fire one day, died, then got up to teach, leaving his body behind.
Dolores Umbridge Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1995-1996 High Inquisitor of Hogwarts, 1995-1996, Headmistress of Hogwarts, 1996; part of a scheme by Cornelius Fudge to exert greater control by the Ministry over Hogwarts.
Professor Fortinbras Charms hundreds of years ago. Taught in Classroom 2E, co-conspirator to former Potions Master Bartholomew in researching the fabled Cursed Vaults. Left behind a Folio of Fartinbras with her fears and suspicions about the vaults.
Filius Flitwick Charms Head of Ravenclaw; part-goblin.
Firenze Divination, 1996-1998 Centaur, temporary replacement after sacking of Sybill Trelawney. Shared classes with Sybill Trelawney in 1996-1998
Galatea Merrythought Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1895-1945 Was possibly going to be replaced by Tom Riddle, but was turned down, due to Riddle being too young, and Dumbledore's suspicions.
Gilderoy Lockhart Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1992-1993 A famous author that used Memory Charms to modify people's memories, taking credit for their work; lost his memory due to a backfired Memory Charm; now a permanent patient at St Mungo's.
Herbert Beery Herbology Directed Hogwarts' one and only Christmas play; left Hogwarts to teach at W.A.D.A. (Wizarding Academy of Dramatic Arts).
Horace Slughorn Potions, c. 1931-1981 and 1996-Unknown Head of Slytherin House, First term as head unknown and 1996-unknown. An old colleague of Albus Dumbledore; a "collector" of famous and talented students through his Slug Club.
Minerva McGonagall Transfiguration, 1956-1998 Deputy Headmistress, Head of Gryffindor, Headmistress of Hogwarts, 1998-before 2017
Neville Longbottom Herbology, Before 2014[3]-Unknown Previously an Auror; sometimes shows his Dumbledore's Army coin to his students.
Patricia Rakepick Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1988-1989 World-famous Curse-Breaker, accepted the role after being summoned by Albus Dumbledore to help put an end by the threat posed by Cursed Vaults.
Pomona Sprout Herbology, Unknown-Before 2017 Head of Hufflepuff.
Quirinus Quirrell Muggle Studies until 1990; Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1991-1992 Subjugated by Lord Voldemort after meeting him in Albania during his one-year sabbatical in 1990; attempted to steal the Philosopher's Stone; died after Voldemort abandoned him. He was replaced by an un-named Professor.
Remus Lupin Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1993-1994 A werewolf that worked for the Order of the Phoenix; husband of Nymphadora Tonks and father of Teddy Lupin; died in the Battle of Hogwarts.
Rolanda Hooch Flying Instructor Referee of Hogwarts Quidditch matches and Flying class teacher
Rubeus Hagrid Care of Magical Creatures, 1993-Unknown Keeper of Keys and Grounds; became Care of Magical Creatures teacher in 1993; left job in 1997 as he was on the run; possibly returned to job after Voldemort fell; half-human, half-giant.
Septima Vector Arithmancy A strict witch who teaches in Classroom 7A on the seventh floor.
Severus Snape Potions, 1981-1996; Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1996-1997 Head of Slytherin, 1981-1996Headmaster1997-1998. When Dolores Umbridge inspected his class in 1995, he told her that he had been teaching for fourteen years. Murdered by Voldemort during the Battle of Hogwarts.
Silvanus Kettleburn Care of Magical Creatures, Unknown-1993 Lost limb(s) in classes, dealing with dangerous creatures, and retired in order to spend time with remaining limbs.
Sybill Trelawney Divination, 1979- unknown Conceived the prophecy of the Chosen One; predicts the death of a student at the beginning of every school year.
Male Muggle Studies teacher Muggle Studies, 1990-1993 Replaced by Charity Burbage.
Vindictus Viridian Unknown, possibly Potions in 1703 Author, Potioneer, and has his portrait hanging in Hogwarts Castle
Wilhelmina Grubbly-Plank Care of Magical Creatures Substitute for Rubeus Hagrid while he was attempting to parley with the giants on Dumbledore's behalf.
Professor Swoopstikes Potions Former Potions Master, He reports that he was "something of an expert."


Professor Position Circa
Rionach Steward The younger daughter of Founders Isolt Sayre and James Steward. Professor of Defence Against the Dark Arts. c. late 17th century to early 18th century
Eulalie Hicks Professor of Charms by 1927 By 1927 - unknown

Extra-curriculum Hogwarts professors

Professor Subject Other Roles and Notes
Advanced Arithmancy Studies professor Advanced Arithmancy Studies Teaches in a classroom in the Hogwarts Turris Magnus.
Art professor Magical Art Teaches in a classroom on the fifth floor.
Ghoul Studies professor Ghoul Studies Teaches in a classroom in the Hogwarts Turris Magnus.
Male Professor Magical Music Taught during the 1992–1993 school year in the Music Classroom.

Non-teaching academics

The title of Professor is also used by certain esteemed individuals within the wizarding community tasked with magical research and development. Among them are:


Notes and references

  1. Such as in the cases of Poppy Pomfrey, Irma Pince and Rolanda Hooch.
  2. Used when referring to, or addressing, a male member of staff.
  3. Quidditch World Cup 2014: Daily Prophet reports from Pottermore (via The Internet Archive)

Honourific titles
Lady · Lord · Professor · Madam · Mr · Mrs · Sir
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