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"Professors have a long and valued history within the wizarding world. We teach across a broad set of specialised subjects and mould young minds. But don't be fooled, while some may underestimate us, Professors are never to be trifled with. Look no further than the Battle of Hogwarts for your proof."
Minerva McGonagall addressing members of the S.O.S. wanting to pursue a career as a Professor.[src]

Hogwarts' professors Flitwick, Quirrell, along with Madam Hooch at Hogwarts school

The title of Professor was given to members of the wizarding scientific and scholarly community engaged in education and research, taken as a whole.[1][2]

It was, perhaps most notably, used by teachers at wizarding educational institutions such as Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry,[1] and Durmstrang Institute.[3] It was considered rude by some for students to not address a member of a teaching staff on their school as professor, Madam[4][5][6] or Sir,[6] as was the case with Professor Snape. Harry Potter often chose to omit this title when speaking of Snape to others, leading Snape to chastise him.[7] However, the most notable exception to this was Rubeus Hagrid, who was usually referred to by his surname.[8]

The term Sir or Madam (depending on the gender) was an alternative title to use instead of Professor, on the speaker's preference. While talking to their colleagues, they usually used their first name. Professor Snape, however, preferred to use others' surnames. For example, he called Remus Lupin, Lupin,[9][10] and Gilderoy Lockhart, Professor Lockhart in the Duelling Club in 1992.[11] The exception to this would be Professor McGonagall, whom Professor Snape called Minerva.[12]

Powers and rights

Teacher have the power to deduct points from misbehaving students

Hogwarts Professors had the power to award and dock points (to determine the winner of the house cup competition),[13][1] give detention,[14][15] and write notes for certain areas and activities that were usually off limits. For example, they could grant permission for students access the Restricted Section in the Hogwarts Library[16][17] or permission to practise on the Quidditch pitch at specific times, even if another team was scheduled.[18]

Professors could put students in detention, but couldn't expel them without the approval of the Headmaster.[15]

However, they were forbidden from using magical or physical force to assault students (at least under Headmaster Albus Dumbledore). For example, Bartemius Crouch Junior (posing as Alastor Moody) was reprimanded by Minerva McGonagall for turning Draco Malfoy into a ferret, while serving as Defence Against the Dark Arts professor in 1994.[19] Professor Dumbledore threatened Dolores Umbridge for violently shaking Marietta Edgecombe while she served in the same position in 1995.[20]

Life outside of classes

Many Hogwarts professors resided at the school during the school year, though this was not always the case. During the 1980s, Minerva McGonagall owned a cottage in nearby Hogsmeade with her husband, later moving out after his death.[21] A teacher could also visit a home by means of Apparition, the Floo Network, or a Portkey. In the summer of 1996, Severus Snape returned to his childhood house in Spinner's End.[22]

Those who remained at the school throughout the night seemed to have private quarters that were near or attached to their offices. On at least one occasion, Professor McGonagall could hear the noise of a party in the Gryffindor common room from wherever she was sleeping, indicating the she, as Gryffindor Head of House, may have had quarters within Gryffindor Tower.

Professors typically ate meals with the students in the Great Hall,[13] but this was not required. Sybill Trelawney often preferred to eat alone in her classroom.[23] When Harry Potter attended his first Divination class with her in 1993, she mentioned that some of the students might not have seen her before.[8]

Each Professor seemed to have at least one "free" period during the school week. Harry Potter's third-year Defence Against the Dark Arts class saw Professor Snape in the staffroom once.[9] Snape was also available to serve as a substitute teacher when Remus Lupin was, unbeknownst to the same group of students, ill from the effects of a werewolf transformation.[24] Harry's fifth-year Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, Dolores Umbridge, sent him to Professor McGonagall after he argued with her during a lesson. McGonagall was in her office.[25]

During the second term of each year, a Head of House would hold career counselling meetings with each of their fifth-year students, advising them on what N.E.W.T.-level classes they should take in preparation for their desired careers.[26]

When a weekend Apparition course took place at the school, a Head of House would attend and help oversee the participating students from their House.[27]

Education

"We teachers are rather good at magic, you know."
Minerva McGonagall regarding the impressive magical abilities Hogwarts professors had[src]

Rubeus Hagrid, the only Professor known not to have received his O.W.L.s

It is presumed that wizards and witches did not need any form of specific education or training if they wished to become teachers. They should possess knowledge and skill in the subject of their teaching, and preferably hold an O.W.L. and a N.E.W.T. in the subject. Sometimes a Headmaster/Headmistress would hire someone who had not sat the O.W.L. exams.

Dumbledore chose Rubeus Hagrid as a Care of Magical Creatures Professor in 1993, even though Hagrid was expelled from Hogwarts during his third year.[8] In 1996, Dumbledore hired Firenze, who, as a Centaur, had never attended a human school.[20] On the other hand, he refused to hire Tom Riddle, knowing his ill intents despite his superior qualifications.[28] Of course, this all depended on who was the current Head in question.

At least three years of after-school life experience were necessary. Both Minerva McGonagall and Severus Snape were hired when they were twenty-one years old. When Tom Riddle graduated from Hogwarts, he immediately asked then-Headmaster Armando Dippet if he could teach Defence Against the Dark Arts. Dippet considered him to be too young at age eighteen, but invited him to return in a few years and apply again.[28]

Severus Snape, a teacher who demanded to be referred to as Professor or Sir

After acquiring a post as Professor, teachers might temporarily return to the outside world to continue their practical studies. Quirinus Quirrell left his post as Muggle Studies instructor for a year-long sabbatical, allegedly to "gain first-hand experience" in Defence Against the Dark Arts so he could better teach it the following year.[29]

When Dumbledore hired Gilderoy Lockhart, Professor McGonagall asked what could be learned from such a vain man. Dumbledore replied that much could be learned even from a bad teacher: what not to do, how not to be.[30]

When the Ministry of Magic took on more tyrannical methods of trying to wrest control of Hogwarts from Dumbledore,[31] they imposed an Educational Decree allowing them to implant a professor into the staff should the Headmaster fail to find a suitable candidate.[32] This led to the installation of Dolores Umbridge, who showed her own inability to teach Defence Against the Dark Arts properly, revealing that the Ministry would prefer to a figurehead to deliver politically authorised theories, rather than a genuine professor with practical qualifications.[25][33]

According to Minerva McGonagall, Hogwarts Professors were very talented in magic overall, being able to perform advanced magical feats with little difficulty.[12] This statement implies that Professors were highly accomplished and qualified wizards and witches with mastery in most magical fields.

Known professors

Hogwarts

Professor Subject Other roles and notes
Godric Gryffindor Unknown Hogwarts founder, Head of Gryffindor.[16]
Rowena Ravenclaw Hogwarts founder, Head of Ravenclaw.[16]
Helga Hufflepuff Hogwarts founder, Head of Hufflepuff.[16]
Salazar Slytherin Hogwarts founder, Head of Slytherin.[16]
Albus Dumbledore Transfiguration, Unknown-1956
Defence Against the Dark Arts, c. 1913-1927
Headmaster, 1956-1997
Alecto Carrow Muggle Studies, 1997-1998[34] Appointed by Voldemort, was also in charge of punishment.[34]
Amycus Carrow Dark Arts, 1997-1998[34] Appointed by Voldemort, was also in charge of punishment.[34]
Aurora Sinistra Astronomy A witch who taught at the Astronomy Tower.[11]
Professor Bartholomew Potions hundreds of years ago. Taught in the Potions Classroom, co-conspirator to Charms Professor Fortinbras in researching the fabled Cursed Vaults, intent on seeing the power within in the 'right hands'.[35]
Bathsheda Babbling Study of Ancient Runes[36] Taught in Classroom 6A on sixth floor.
Bartemius Crouch Jnr Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1994-1995 Barty Crouch Jnr posing as Alastor Moody by using Polyjuice Potion; aided in a plan to use Harry to revive Voldemort;[37] given the Dementor's Kiss after capture.[38]
Charity Burbage Muggle Studies, 1993-1997 Took over Muggle Studies in 1993; killed by Voldemort at Malfoy Manor for expressing pro-Muggle views.[39]
Cuthbert Binns History of Magic[1] Ghost; fell asleep in front of the staffroom fire one day, died, then got up to teach, leaving his body behind.[1]
Dolores Umbridge Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1995-1996 High Inquisitor of Hogwarts,[40] 1995-1996, Headmistress of Hogwarts,[41] 1996; part of a scheme by Cornelius Fudge to exert greater control by the Ministry over Hogwarts.[31][25]
Professor Fortinbras Charms hundreds of years ago. Taught in Classroom 2E, co-conspirator to former Potions Master Bartholomew in researching the fabled Cursed Vaults. Left behind a Folio of Fartinbras with her fears and suspicions about the vaults.[35]
Filius Flitwick Charms[1][42] Head of Ravenclaw;[43] part-goblin.
Firenze Divination, 1996-1998 Centaur, temporary replacement after sacking of Sybill Trelawney. Shared classes with Sybill Trelawney in 1996-1998
Galatea Merrythought Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1895-1945 Was possibly going to be replaced by Tom Riddle, but was turned down, due to Riddle being too young, and Dumbledore's suspicions.[28]
Gilderoy Lockhart Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1992-1993 A famous author that used Memory Charms to modify people's memories, taking credit for their work; lost his memory due to a backfired Memory Charm;[44][30] afterwards became permanent patient at St Mungo's.[45]
Herbert Beery Herbology Directed Hogwarts' one and only Christmas play; left Hogwarts to teach at W.A.D.A. (Wizarding Academy of Dramatic Arts).[46]
Horace Slughorn Potions, c. 1931-1981 and 1996-Unknown Head of Slytherin House, First term as head unknown and 1996-unknown. An old colleague of Albus Dumbledore; a "collector" of famous and talented students through his Slug Club.[47][48]
Minerva McGonagall Transfiguration, 1956-1998 Deputy Headmistress,[49] Head of Gryffindor,[1] Headmistress of Hogwarts,[50] 1998-before 2017
Neville Longbottom Herbology, Before 2014[51][52]-Unknown Previously an Auror; sometimes showed his Dumbledore's Army coin to his students.
Patricia Rakepick Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1988-1989 World-famous Curse-Breaker, accepted the role after being summoned by Albus Dumbledore to help put an end by the threat posed by Cursed Vaults.[53]
Pomona Sprout Herbology, Unknown-Before 2017 Head of Hufflepuff.[54]
Quirinus Quirrell Muggle Studies until 1990; Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1991-1992 Subjugated by Lord Voldemort after meeting him in Albania during his one-year sabbatical in 1990; attempted to steal the Philosopher's Stone; died after Voldemort abandoned him.[55][56]
Remus Lupin Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1993-1994[57] A werewolf that worked for the Order of the Phoenix;[58] husband of Nymphadora Tonks and father of Teddy Lupin; died in the Battle of Hogwarts.[59]
Rubeus Hagrid Care of Magical Creatures, 1993-Unknown Keeper of Keys and Grounds; became Care of Magical Creatures teacher in 1993;[8] left job in 1997 as he was on the run;[60] possibly returned to job after Voldemort fell;[61] half-human, half-giant.[62]
Septima Vector Arithmancy[63] A strict witch who teaches in Classroom 7A on the seventh floor.[63]
Severus Snape Potions, 1981-1996; Defence Against the Dark Arts, 1996-1997 Head of Slytherin, 1981-1996.[1] Headmaster, 1997-1998.[12] When Dolores Umbridge inspected his class in 1995, he told her that he had been teaching for fourteen years.[40] Murdered by Voldemort during the Battle of Hogwarts.[59]
Silvanus Kettleburn Care of Magical Creatures, Unknown-1993 Lost limb(s) in classes, dealing with dangerous creatures, and retired in order to spend time with remaining limbs.[8]
Sybill Trelawney Divination,[8] 1979- unknown Conceived the prophecy of the Chosen One;[64] predicted the death of a student at the beginning of every school year.[8]
Male Muggle Studies teacher Muggle Studies, 1990-1993 Replaced by Charity Burbage.
Vindictus Viridian Unknown, possibly Potions in 1703 Author, Potioneer, and has his portrait hanging in Hogwarts Castle
Wilhelmina Grubbly-Plank Care of Magical Creatures Substitute for Rubeus Hagrid while he was attempting to parley with the giants on Dumbledore's behalf.[62][33][40]
Professor Swoopstikes Potions Former Potions Master; he reports that he was "something of an expert."[65]
Arif Sikander Muggle Studies Appointed as the Muggle Studies professor in the 1990–1991 school year at Hogwarts, to cover for Quirinus Quirrell, who was away for the school year abroad.[66]

Ilvermorny

Professor Position Circa
Rionach Steward The younger daughter of Founders Isolt Sayre and James Steward. Professor of Defence Against the Dark Arts.[67] c. late 17th century to early 18th century
Eulalie Hicks Professor of Charms by 1927[68] By 1927 - unknown

Extra-curriculum Hogwarts professors

Professor Subject Other Roles and Notes
Advanced Arithmancy Studies professor Advanced Arithmancy Studies Teaches in a classroom in the Hogwarts Turris Magnus.[69]
Art professor Magical Art Teaches in a classroom on the fifth floor.[70][71]
Ghoul Studies professor Ghoul Studies Teaches in a classroom in the Hogwarts Turris Magnus.[69]
Male Professor Magical Music Taught during the 1992–1993 school year in the Music Classroom.[70][71]

Non-teaching academics

The title of Professor was also used by certain esteemed individuals within the wizarding community tasked with magical research and development. Among them were:

Appearances

Notes and references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 8 (The Potions Master)
  2. Harry Potter: Wizards Unite
  3. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 15 (Beauxbatons and Durmstrang)
  4. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 1 (The Boy Who Lived)
  5. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 9 (The Midnight Duel)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 12 (The Mirror of Erised)
  7. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 9 (The Half-Blood Prince)
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 6 (Talons and Tea Leaves)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 7 (The Boggart in the Wardrobe)
  10. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 14 (Snape's Grudge)
  11. 11.0 11.1 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 11 (The Duelling Club)
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 30 (The Sacking of Severus Snape)
  13. 13.0 13.1 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 7 (The Sorting Hat)
  14. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 14 (Norbert the Norwegian Ridgeback)
  15. 15.0 15.1 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 5 (The Whomping Willow)
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 9 (The Writing on the Wall)
  17. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 10 (The Rogue Bludger)
  18. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 7 (Mudbloods And Murmurs)
  19. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 13 (Mad-Eye Moody)
  20. 20.0 20.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 27 (The Centaur and the Sneak)
  21. Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Professor McGonagall" at Wizarding World
  22. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 2 (Spinner's End)
  23. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 11 (The Firebolt)
  24. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 9 (Grim Defeat)
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 12 (Professor Umbridge),
  26. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 29 (Careers Advice)
  27. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 18 (Birthday Surprises)
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 20 (Lord Voldemort's Request)
  29. 29.0 29.1 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 5 (Diagon Alley)
  30. 30.0 30.1 Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Gilderoy Lockhart" at Wizarding World
  31. 31.0 31.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 11 (The Sorting Hat's New Song)
  32. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 17 (Educational Decree Number Twenty-Four)
  33. 33.0 33.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 13 (Detention with Dolores)
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 29 (The Lost Diadem)
  35. 35.0 35.1 Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 3, Side Quest "Nearly Headless Nick"
  36. J. K. Rowling's official site
  37. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 35 (Veritaserum)
  38. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 36 (The Parting of the Ways)
  39. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 1 (The Dark Lord Ascending)
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 15 (The Hogwarts High Inquisitor)
  41. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 28 (Snape's Worst Memory)
  42. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 10 (Hallowe'en)
  43. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 29 (The Phoenix Lament)
  44. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter 16 (The Chamber of Secrets)
  45. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 23 (Christmas on the Closed Ward)
  46. The Tales of Beedle the Bard - "The Fountain of Fair Fortune"
  47. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 4 (Horace Slughorn)
  48. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 7 (The Slug Club)
  49. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 4 (The Keeper of the Keys)
  50. Harry Potter and the Cursed Child
  51. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Epilogue (Nineteen Years Later)
  52. Quidditch World Cup 2014: Daily Prophet reports from Pottermore (via The Internet Archive)
  53. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 5, Chapter 1 (Year Five Begins)
  54. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 18 (The Weighing of the Wands)
  55. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Chapter 17 (The Man with Two Faces)
  56. Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Professor Quirrell" at Wizarding World
  57. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 5 (The Dementor)
  58. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 5 (The Order of the Phoenix)
  59. 59.0 59.1 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 32 (The Elder Wand)
  60. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 28 (The Missing Mirror)
  61. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 31 (The Battle of Hogwarts)
  62. 62.0 62.1 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 24 (Rita Skeeter's Scoop)
  63. 63.0 63.1 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 12 (The Patronus)
  64. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 37 (The Lost Prophecy)
  65. The Wizarding World of Harry Potter
  66. Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery, Year 7, Chapter 1 (Year Seven Begins)
  67. Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry" at Wizarding World
  68. Eulalie Hicks
  69. 69.0 69.1 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)
  70. 70.0 70.1 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (video game)
  71. 71.0 71.1 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (video game)
  72. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 16 (Godric's Hollow)
  73. Harry Potter Limited Edition
  74. Daily Prophet Newsletters
  75. Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Time-Turner" at Wizarding World
Honourific titles
Lady · Lord · Professor · Madam · Mr · Mrs · Sir